Light bulb

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Title Info
English name Light bulb
Chinese name 灯泡
Foreign name Light bulb
Effect Illumination
Inventor Henry Goebbel
Use “ Car, landscaping, decoration

Light bulb

  • A light bulb, an illumination source that glows through electrical energy, was invented by Henry Goebbels (Edison actually found the right material, inventing a practical incandescent lamp, which appeared as early as 1854). The most common function of a light bulb is lighting. With the development of the society, the use of light bulbs has also undergone different changes. Initially, it may be convenient for production and life. However, with the progress of society, there have been obvious changes in the use of light bulbs, and there has been a "car, beautification." Functional lighting for different purposes such as environment, decoration, etc.

Basic definition

  • Light bulb (or electric ball),
    light bulb
    Its exact technical name is incandescent lamp, which is a lamp that is used to illuminate by heating a filament wire (modern, usually tungsten wire) to a light. The periphery of the bulb is made of glass, which holds the filament under vacuum or a low pressure inert gas to prevent oxidation of the filament at high temperatures. Referring to incandescent lamps, it is generally believed that the electric light was invented by American Thomas Martyr Edison. But if serious research is done, another American, Heinrich Gö has invented the same principles and materials decades before Edison. In 1801, the British chemist David used to power up the platinum wire. He also invented the electric candle in 1810, using the arc between the two carbon rods. In 1854 Henry Goebbels used a charred bamboo wire and placed it in a vacuum glass jar to illuminate. His invention appears to be the first incandescent lamp with practical utility today. The bulb he tested at the time was able to last for 400 hours, but did not apply for a design patent immediately.
  • The biggest problem with light bulbs is the sublimation of the filament. Because the slight difference in resistance on the tungsten wire causes the temperature to be different, in places where the resistance is large, the temperature rises higher, and the tungsten wire also sublimes faster, thus causing the tungsten filament to become thinner and the resistance to further increase the cycle; The tungsten wire is blown. It was later discovered that replacing the vacuum with an inert gas can slow the sublimation of the tungsten wire. Most of today's light bulbs are filled with nitrogen, argon or helium. Modern incandescent lamps typically have a life of about 1, 000 hours.
    light bulb

Physical component

  • The bulb is mainly composed of a filament, a glass casing, a lamp holder and the like. The metal material in the bulb is a conductor, while the glass housing, the plastic part of the lamp cap is an insulator.

Working principle

  • The bulb is made according to the principle of the thermal effect of the current. After the bulb is connected to the rated voltage, the current is heated to the incandescent state (above 2000C) through the filament, thus generating heat. Thus, at work, electrical energy is converted into internal energy and light energy.
  • Light is a form of energy that is released by atoms. It is made up of small clusters of tiny particles that have energy and momentum but no mass. These particles are called visible light and are the most basic unit of light. When an electron is excited, the atom emits a photon. If you already know how atoms work, then you know that electrons are negatively charged particles that walk around the nucleus. Atomic electrons have different levels of energy, depending on several factors, including their velocity and distance from the nucleus. Different energy levels of electrons occupy different orbital functions and orbits. Generally speaking, electrons with large energy will be farther away from the nucleus. When the atom gets or loses energy, it changes with electron movement. When there is something that transfers energy to the atom -- in the case of heat -- the electron can be temporarily pushed into a higher orbit (away from the nucleus). The electron stays in this orbital position for a very short time: it is almost immediately returned to the nucleus and reaches its original orbit. At this time, the electrons emit extra energy in the form of photons. The wavelength of the luminescence depends on how much energy is released, depending on the orbital position of the electron. Therefore, different types of atoms will emit different types of visible light. In other words, the color of the light is determined by the type of atom being excited.
  • The structure of the bulb is very simple. There are two metal contacts on the bottom that are used to connect electricity. The metal contacts have two wires that touch a thin metal filament. The filament is located in the center of the bulb and is supported by a glass. Both the wire and the filament are enclosed in a glass bulb filled with an inert gas, usually an argon inert gas. When the bulb is connected to the power source, the current will flow from it.
    light bulb
    One of the contact points flows to the other contact point and then flows to the wire and filament. A large amount of free electrons in the solid conductor line current moves from the negatively charged region to the positively charged region. The jumping electrons in the vibrating atom may be temporarily pushed to a higher energy position. When they fall back to their original normal position, the electrons release extra energy in the form of photons. Metal atoms release most of the infrared visible light, and people's eyes are visible. But if they are heated to about 4000 degrees Fahrenheit, the bulb emits a lot of visible light. Tungsten is used in almost all incandescent bulbs because it is the ideal filament material. The metal must be heated to a very high temperature to emit useful visible light. In fact, most metals melt before reaching this temperature, while tungsten wires have unusually high melting temperatures. However, the tungsten wire will ignite at such a high temperature. If the condition permits, a reaction will occur between the two chemicals to cause combustion. The filament in the bulb is covered by a sealed, oxygen-free space to prevent combustion. The air in the bulb is sucked out to create a state close to a vacuum - that is, there is nothing in it. Since there is almost no gas special substance in it, the substance will not burn. One problem with this method is the evaporation of tungsten atoms. At such a high temperature, in a vacuum bulb, free tungsten atoms are emitted in a straight line. As more and more atoms evaporate, the filament begins to decay and the glass begins to darken. This greatly reduces the life of the bulb.
  • The inert gas used in modern light bulbs is usually argon, which greatly reduces this loss of tungsten. When a tungsten atom evaporates, it collides with an argon atom and since the inert gas usually does not react with other elements, there is no combustion reaction. Cheap and easy to use, the bulb has proven to be a huge success. The bulb is still the most popular lighting option in the room. But it will eventually give way to more advanced technology because it is not energy efficient. Most of the energy emitted by incandescent bulbs is emitted by means of a thermal infrared ray-photometer - only about 10% of the light produced is visible. This wastes a lot of electricity. Warm light sources, such as fluorescent and LED lights, do not waste Dali energy to generate heat and emit most of the visible light. Therefore, they will slowly replace the bulb.

Common function

  • The most common function of a light bulb is lighting. With the development of the society, the use of light bulbs has also undergone different changes. Initially, it may be convenient for production and life. However, with the progress of society, there have been obvious changes in the use of light bulbs, and there has been a "car, beautification." Functional lighting for different purposes such as environment, decoration, etc.

Main classification


  • Tungsten bulb
    A widely used light source that emits warm, dim light, which is what most of us think of. It's cheap, so tungsten filament bulbs are also available in a variety of styles to match different fixtures. However, tungsten filament bulbs do not last long and do not save electricity. They also emit a low temperature, so they should not be too close to paper, textiles or silicone products.
  • W91 type tungsten wire is suitable for the manufacture of filaments, impact resistant filaments and other high temperature resistors.
  • W71 type tungsten wire is suitable for the manufacture of lamp filaments and other anti-shock devices.
  • W61 type tungsten wire is suitable for manufacturing spiral coil filament.
  • W31 type tungsten wire is suitable for making spiral filaments such as incandescent lamps.
  • W41 type tungsten wire is suitable for the manufacture of retained tungsten wire and tungsten heating elements.
  • W42 type tungsten wire is suitable for the manufacture of retained tungsten wire, tungsten heating elements and other equipment without special temperature requirements.
  • W11 type tungsten wire is suitable for the manufacture of electrodes and lead.

Tungsten halogen

  • Tungsten halogen bulb
    The life of the bubble is longer than the average tungsten filament bulb, but the price is also expensive. The light cues generated by the tungsten halogen lamp are also whiter than the ordinary tungsten light bulb.
  • There are two styles of halogen lamps: high-volts, which are usually only used for skylights; and low-volts, which are used for downlights. Both bulbs can be used to adjust the light.
  • The halogen-adjusting light intensity of the light intensity is particularly practical for the average family, because these lamps are smooth in shape, and the light is projected upwards to the ceiling or the wall and then reflected down, and the lighting effect is soft. At least the bulb is small and relatively power efficient, so it is often used in spotlights to illuminate the light up or down.
  • One of the main advantages of halogen lamps is that the maximum amount of light energy can be dissipated from the filament of a small needle. As a result, the shape of the luminaire can be made very smooth and mini, saving more space.
  • Because it is very power efficient, halogen bulbs are widely used in store lighting – you can identify them from tiny flashing bulbs.


  • fluorescent tube
    The light it emits is colder, rougher and cyan than the tungsten bulb, but the tube is very power efficient and durable, so it is a cost-effective option on the right. They also have many improvements at the moment and can be used in smaller fixtures. In addition, these improved lamps produce light that is warmer than the old ones, making them the best choice for kitchens and studios. But in a nutshell, this kind of lamp is helpful for the creation of the atmosphere at home.

Metal halogen

  • Metal halogen bulb
    This is the light source currently developed and manufactured, which is not only cheap, but also does not damage the color of the house. It is most often used in gardens where high brightness is required. Because of the sodium-containing ingredients, it will emit a light orange glow. Today, the most widely used metal halide lamps are street lights, and the advantages of power saving are the main considerations. But people are gradually using them in indoor lighting.


  • LED bulb
    The LED will be a renewed light revolution since Edison invented the light bulb.
  • Current status of LED bulbs LED lamps are mainly based on high-power white LED single lamps. The current world's top three LED lighting manufacturers are guaranteed for three years. Large particles are equal to or greater than 100 lumens per watt, and small particles are greater than or equal to 110 lumens per watt. Light decay large particles are less than 3% per year, and light decay small particles are less than 3% per year.
  • LED solar street lights, LED flood lights, LED ceiling lights, and LED fluorescent lamps are already in mass production. For example, a 10 watt LED fluorescent lamp can replace a 40 watt ordinary fluorescent lamp or an energy saving lamp.


  • Xenon lights
    Xenon lamps, also called HID gas discharge headlamps. It replaces the traditional tungsten wire with a high-pressure helium gas wrapped in a quartz tube to provide higher color temperature and more concentrated illumination.
  • The principle of luminescence is filled in a UV-cut anti-ultraviolet crystal quartz glass tube with a variety of chemical gases, most of which are Xenon and iodide, and then 12 volts through the booster (Ballast). The DC voltage is instantaneously boosted to a voltage of 23, 000 volts, and the helium electrons in the quartz tube are excited by the high-voltage amplitude to generate a light source between the two electrodes. This is called gas discharge. The white super-strong arc light produced by helium can increase the color temperature value of the light, similar to the white sun light. The current required for HID operation is only 3.5A, the brightness is three times that of the traditional halogen bulb, and the service life is longer than the traditional one. Halogen bulbs are 10 times longer.

Invention process

  • The bulb dēngpào (English Bulb), the first use is known to be Henry Goebbel of the United States. The most famous inventor is the American scientist Thomas Alva Edison, who knows that Edison succeeded in producing light bulbs on October 21, 1879.
  • During the development process, Thomas Alva Edison carefully analyzed the gas and arc lamps at the time. His main direction was to find a heat-resistant material. It is burned to a white heat by an electric current to emit hot light without breaking or melting. He stumbled upon the fact that the cotton thread was burned to ashes in the air, and the carbon wool thread was placed in the treated glass ball to emit blaze. Unfortunately, the light only disappeared after a few minutes. He mistakenly gave up the test and switched to 1, 600 different heat-resistant materials such as bismuth, nickel, platinum (platinum) and platinum-rhodium alloy, and the harvest was minimal.
  • Thomas Alva Edison returned to carbon research. In October of that year, he tested a 20-cm-long, 0.15-cm-diameter carbon rod with a heat resistance of 5.5 hours. He continued to improve carbonization and pumping.
  • light bulb
    On October 21, 1879, he used a cotton wire with a diameter of 0.025 cm as a filament. The luminosity was bright and stable. It illuminated with 4 candles, 1 hour, 2 hours... For 45 hours. After more than a year of hard work and thousands of trials, the long-awaited electric light was finally born.
  • In October of the same year, after Thomas Alva Edison switched to carbonized cardboard to greatly improve the life of the lamp, the producer could not wait to put it into production. On New Year's Eve in 1880, 3, 000 people took to the streets of New York to watch this new invention. Success did not stop Thomas Alva Edison. In the second year, he made a bamboo lamp that could last for 1, 200 hours. It was not until 1904 that the Austrian invented a tungsten lamp that was three times stronger than the bamboo lamp, and the former was replaced. Tungsten filament lamps have been in use since 1907.
  • Before the invention of the light bulb, it was a laborious and dangerous thing to illuminate a place after the sun went down. It was to be illuminated with a candle or a torch. Although the oil lamp was not bad at the time, it always left soot.
  • In the mid-18th century, electrical science really developed, and inventors everywhere shouted to invent a practical home lighting device. The British inventor Swan and the American inventor Edison invented the light bulb in 1897. The modern light bulb and the electric bulb invented by Edison did not change in essence.
  • It is generally believed that the electric light was invented by American Thomas Edison. But if serious research is done, another American, Henry Goebbels, invented the same principles and materials and reliable light bulbs decades before Edison, and many others also invented the electric lights before Edison. Made a lot of contributions.
  • In 1801, British chemist David used the platinum wire to illuminate.
  • In 1810, David invented an electric candle that used arc illumination between two carbon rods.
  • In 1854, Henry Goebbels used a charred bamboo wire and placed it in a vacuum glass jar to illuminate. His invention today appears to be the first incandescent lamp to have practical utility. The bulb he tested at the time was able to last for 400 hours, but did not apply for a design patent immediately.
  • In 1850, the Englishman Joseph Wilson Swan began studying electric lights.
  • In 1878, Joseph Wilson Swan obtained a British patent for a carbon-powered light bulb under vacuum and began to establish a company in the UK to install electric lights in various homes.
  • In 1874, two electrical technicians in Canada applied for a patent for electric lights. They were filled with nitrogen under the glass bubbles and illuminated with energized carbon rods. But they did not have enough money to continue to develop the invention, selling the patent to Thomas Edison in 1875.
  • In 1879, Edison changed to a carbon filament bulb and successfully maintained 13 hours.
  • In 1880, Edison's charred bamboo bulbs were successfully maintained in the laboratory for 1200 hours. But in the UK, Swan accused Edison of infringing patents and winning the case. Edison’s electric light company in the UK was forced to join Swan as a partner. But then Swan sold his rights and patents to Edison. In the United States, Edison’s patents have also been challenged. The US Patent Office has ruled that his invention has a prior record and is invalid. Finally, after years of lawsuits, Edison obtained the patent for carbon filament incandescent lamps.
    light bulb
  • In 1906, General Electric invented a method of manufacturing tungsten filaments for electric lamps. Finally, the method of cheaply manufacturing tungsten wire was solved, and a tungsten wire bulb was used up to now.
  • In 1910, the Couli Hall in the United States used tungsten wire as a filament to invent a tungsten filament bulb.
  • In 1913, the American Lanmir invented the gas-filled tungsten filament bulb by filling the glass with gas to prevent the filament from evaporating.
  • In 1925, Japan’s unbreakable orange three invented the inner wall matte bulb.
  • In 1932, Japan's Miura Shunichi invented a double-helical tungsten filament bulb.
  • The use of light bulbs has made the world more beautiful and dazzling.

Development trend

  • People have higher and higher requirements on the product quality and photoelectric parameter consistency of the bulb, and the consistency of the performance of the tungsten wire is a key factor to ensure the performance of the bulb.
Light bulb development trend Influence on various aspects of tungsten wire
Continuous improvement in performance and stability Improved recrystallization performance, control of potassium bubble distribution, reproducible
Energy saving Coil positioning and stability
Compact fluorescent lamp Control internal stress
Infrared coating lamp Control potassium bubble size distribution
Miniaturization New technology (winding coil) High-precision size - silk material size control high chemical purity - low pollution, smaller wire size - prevent uneven wire diameter and scratches
Environmental protection Waste acid and wastewater treatment for the production of tungsten products, no substitute materials for radioactive cesium; restrictions on the use of hazardous substances
Diversity Best special application for tungsten properties


  • The main methods of maintenance of the light bulb are:
  • Do not switch the power of the lamp too often.
  • Do not let the bulb shine continuously for too long.
  • Do not connect too many appliances on the terminal block.
  • Do not plug or unplug the power while the light is on, or even unscrew the light bulb.
  • Do not take the hot bulb to the cold environment immediately, and vice versa.
Candle light bulb

Installation points

  • It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the light bulb is free from external interference and should be beautiful, practical, firm and safe.
  • The connection of the wires should be standardized.
  • The switch has to control the live line.
  • The screw sleeve of the screw socket is only connected to the zero line.
  • The two wires in the lamp holder are insulated from each other and the fuse is fastened.

Major defect

Light bulb black

  • Although technical measures have been taken to hinder the sublimation of tungsten at high temperatures, in fact, tungsten can also sublimate at high temperatures, from solid to gas. The hot tungsten vapor is cooled and then solidified into a solid crystal attached to the inner surface of the lamp. So the light bulb will turn black and dark. In addition, the result of sublimation and desublimation makes the filament thinner, which can be analyzed by the formula R=ρ (resistivity) L/S(π r2), the radius r becomes smaller, the filament resistance R becomes larger, and the voltage across the lamp is not Change, P = U2 / R, so the power of the lamp becomes smaller and the brightness becomes darker.

Lamp damage

  • The electrical resistance of the conductor is related to the material, cross-sectional area, length and temperature of the conductor. Generally, the electrical resistance of metallic materials increases with increasing temperature, and filament tungsten also has the same properties. At the moment of turning on the light, the filament temperature is low and the resistance is small, so the filament is prone to overheating and melting. After working for a period of time, the filament temperature rises, the resistance increases with the increase of the temperature, and the current and power of the lamp are close to the rated value, so it is difficult to damage. A "220V, 60W" incandescent lamp is calculated by the formula R = U2 / P, the thermal resistance is 807 ohms, and the non-operating cold resistance measured is 63 ohms.


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