Council of Europe
|English name||Council of Europe|
|Foreign name||Council of Europe|
|Date of establishment||May 5, 1949|
|Member||47 member states, 5 observers of the Council of Ministers|
|Regulation||European Commission Regulations|
|Main in-charge||Peter Scheider|
|Phone||33 3 88 41 20 00|
- 1 Council of Europe
- 2 Basic Information
- 3 Organization
- 4 External relations
- 5 Discussions
- 6 What Links Here
- 7 References
Council of Europe
- The European Commission is also known as the "European Council." An international organization pursuing the goal of "European cooperation and cooperation". On May 5, 1949, Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom signed the "European Commission Regulations" in London, formally established the organization. Its purpose is to work hard to achieve a closer European union; to promote the economic and social progress of member states; and to uphold the principles of parliamentary democracy and human rights. The main activities include: reviewing issues of political, human rights, economic, social, cultural and scientific issues that are of common concern to member states, and seeking solutions in these areas through the signing of agreements and conventions by member governments and recommendations to member governments. Take a unified action. 
Date of establishment
- On May 5, 1949, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom signed the "European Commission Regulations" in London, formally established the organization. The European Commission is headquartered in Strasbourg, France, with offices in Paris.
- 47 member countries (May 2007): Ireland, Austria, Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Germany, France, Netherlands, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Cyprus, San Marino, Turkey, Spain, Greece, Italy, United Kingdom, Finland, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia, Romania, Andorra, Moldova, Albania, Latvia, Ukraine, Macedonia, Russia, Croatia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Monaco, Montenegro. There are also observer States of the five Council of Europe Council of the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico and the Vatican. In addition, Canada, Mexico and Israel are observers to the Council of the European Commission.
- Its purpose is to protect European human rights, parliamentary democracy and the priority of rights; to reach agreements in Europe to coordinate social and legal behaviors of nations; and to promote the unity of European culture.
- The European Commission seeks political, economic, social, human rights, science and technology by reviewing major issues other than defense, which are of common concern to member states, and promoting the signing of conventions and agreements by member governments and recommendations to member governments. Concerts and other areas take unified action and often express opinions on major international issues.
- The standards of its member states must be European countries that practice pluralistic democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights. In addition, member states must sign the European Convention on Human Rights.
- Main in-charge
- Speaker Peter Schieder (Austrian) was elected as the 22nd Speaker in January 2002 for a one-year term (two consecutive terms). Secretary-General Walter Schwimmer (Austrian) was elected in June 1999 for a five-year term.
- Strasbourg, France. There is an office in Paris.
- Address: Conseil de l'Europe 67075 Strasbourg Cedex France
- Flag and song
- The flag is decorated with 12 gold stars on the blue sky. The song is the prelude to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, "Ode to Joy".
- Official language
- In English and French, the Parliamentary Assembly also uses German, Italian and Russian as working languages.
- Forum, quarterly, English, French, German, Italian edition; "Catalogues of Publications of the Council of Europe", annual publication.
- By the end of 2000, the European Commission had adopted 178 conventions or agreements. Among the more important legal documents are the European Convention on Human Rights (1950), the European Social Charter (1961), the European Convention on Social Security (1972), the European Cultural Convention, the European Convention for the Protection of Wild Fauna and Natural Environment, and the suppression of terrorism. Convention (1977), European Convention for the Prevention of Torture, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1987), European Convention on Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (1988), Framework Convention for the Protection of Humans from Biomedical Damage (1990) ), the Frankfurt Declaration on the Localization of Immigrants (1991), the Framework Convention on the Protection of National Minorities (1994), the Convention on the Unlawful Adoption of Maritime Drug Trafficking (1994), and the revised European Social Charter (1996), the Treaty on Human Rights and Biomedicine (1997), the Criminal Convention on Corruption (1998), the Civil Convention on Corruption (1999), No. 12 on various forms of discrimination against racial discrimination Protocol (2000, a supplementary document to the European Convention on Human Rights).
- On October 8-9, 1993, the European Commission held its first summit meeting in Vienna in response to the initiative of French President Mitterrand.
- The European Union member states hold summit meetings from time to time and have held it twice. The Vienna Conference of 1993 published the Vienna Declaration on the Protection of Minorities and the Reform of Human Rights Institutions. In 1997, the Strasbourg Conference adopted a political declaration and a program of action, emphasizing the values of democracy and human rights, and reaffirming the role of the European Commission in maintaining stability in Europe. The third meeting will be held in Warsaw, Poland from May 16 to 17, 2005.
- On October 10-11, 1997, the second summit meeting of the European Commission was held in Strasbourg, France. This is the first summit meeting since the accession of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern European countries. The presidents or government prime ministers of 40 member states attended the meeting. After the meeting, the final declaration and action plan were issued, stating that Europe should be built into a "freer, more tolerant and more just society" and proposed to establish a new European Court of Human Rights, implement the European Social Charter, and strengthen cooperation in the fight against terrorist activities. And other specific action plans. On the issue of the role of the European Commission, Western European countries emphasized the role of the European Commission in the development of human rights standards. The CIS and Eastern European countries, led by Russia and Ukraine, hope that the European Commission will play a greater role than human rights. During the meeting, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Kohl and Russian President Boris Yeltsin agreed to establish a regular meeting mechanism for the leaders of the three countries to discuss issues of common concern.
Council of ministers
- The highest decision-making and executing agency, composed of a representative of each member state (usually a foreign minister), meets twice a year. There is a ministerial representative committee composed of a permanent representative (ambassador level) from each member state to handle daily affairs. The chairman of the ministerial committee is rotated by representatives of the member states for a period of six months. The current presidency is Poland (November 2004 to May 2005).
- The advisory body has the right to debate and no legislative power. A plenary session is held in January, April, June, and September or October each year. There are 315 existing members and alternate members. Members are replaced by alternate members when they are unable to attend the meeting for any reason. All members of parliament and alternate members are recommended by national parliamentarians from national parliamentarians. Countries vary in size, and there are corresponding differences in the number of referrals. In January each year, the national parliaments confirmed to the European Commission the recommended candidates for the year. Members of Parliament are divided into five groups: the Socialist Party, the European People's Party, the Freedom, Democracy and Reform Party, the European Democratic Party and the European Union Left Party, and there are also non-partisan members. There is a mixed committee under the parliament (responsible for coordinating the work of the parliament and the ministerial committee), a standing committee (at least 2 meetings per year, representing the parliament during the parliamentary recess) and 10 special committees; some special committees have subcommittees, such as politics. The Subcommittee on Relations with Non-Member States is set up by the Panel. The Parliament shall have a Speaker, elected by a Member, for a term of one year and may be re-elected twice. The current speaker is René van der Linden (Netherlands, member of the People's Party), who took office in January 2005.
- These include the Secretary-General’s Office of the Secretary-General and the Office of the Under-Secretary-General, the Secretariat of the Council of Ministers, the Secretariat of the Parliament, the Secretariat of the Local and Regional Regimes, the Office of the Office of the High Commissioner, the Office of the European Court of Human Rights, three divisions (Communications and Research Division, Strategy Planning Division, Protocol Division) and six Directorate-General (Political Directorate, General Directorate of Law, Directorate General of Human Rights, Directorate General for Social Solidarity, Directorate General for Education, Culture, Heritage, Youth and Sports, and Directorate General for Administration and Logistics). The General Secretariat has one secretary-general and one deputy secretary-general, all of which are recommended by the Council of Ministers and elected by the Parliament for a term of five years and renewable. The current Secretary-General is Terry Davis (British nationality, Socialist), who took office on September 1, 2004.
European Court of Human Rights
- The court was established in 1950 as required by the European Charter of Human Rights. At that time, it was composed of the Human Rights Commission and the court. The cases accepted were first considered by the committee and then submitted to the court for judgment. In 1993, the European Commission summit decided to merge the above two institutions into permanent institutions. The 1997 summit decided to form a single European Court of Human Rights from November 1998. Each member state can recommend a judge. Candidates, appointed by the Parliament. The European Court of Human Rights can directly accept complaints from citizens of member states, thereby enhancing the authority of the European Commission in human rights issues throughout Europe. Any member of the European Commission and its residents (including those who do not have the nationality of the member states of the European Commission) may file a lawsuit against the member states of the European Commission. The court has a dean and two vice presidents, elected by the plenary session of the court for a term of three years and renewable. The current dean is Luzius Wildhaber (Swiss), who took office on November 1, 1998, and was re-elected on November 1, 2001 and November 1, 2004, respectively.
Human Rights Commission
- It consists of the Human Rights Commissioner and his office. The Human Rights Commissioner is elected by the Parliament for a term of six years and cannot be re-elected. Its role is to promote the development of education and human rights within the member states of the European Commission. The current Human Rights Commissioner is Thomas Hammarberg (Swedish), who took office on January 1, 2006.
- Established in January 1994, it is an advisory body of the European Commission. Its purpose is to promote local and regional autonomy, assist member states to strengthen local and regional democratic institutions, enhance cooperation between localities and localities, and ensure the participation of local and regional groups. The European Union Process and the work of the European Commission. The conference is divided into the House of the Local Government and the District House. There are 315 representatives and alternate representatives, and a plenary meeting is held each year in Szentela. Representatives are appointed by national governments from among their elected public officials. Representatives of local government houses are generally mayors and municipal senators. The Standing Committee under the Congress is responsible for handling daily affairs. The General Assembly has a chairman who is elected by the General Assembly in rotation to represent the two Houses for a term of two years and cannot be re-elected. The current chairman is Giovanni Di Stasi (Italian, Socialist), who took office in May 2004.
- In addition, the European Commission also has institutions such as the Development Bank, the North-South Center, the European Youth Center, and the European Council for Democracy and Rights.
- The European Commission has close ties with the European Union (EC) and the parliaments of the two organizations hold a joint meeting each year. In September 1995, the European Commission adopted two reports, one is to agree to the EU's accession to the European Commission's human rights conventions, and the other is to state the European Commission's position on the 1996 intergovernmental meeting of the European Union, requesting the European Union to recognize the European Commission in the revision of Mayo. The role and achievements in determining the legal, judicial and democratic standards of European society.
- On April 1, 1998, EU President of the European Union, Secretary of State for European Affairs, Anderson, European Commissioner Fandenbrook, European Council Ministerial Council, German Minister of State Schaefer, and European Commission Secretary-General Tarchis The four-party conference was held in Lasburg, and discussions were held on strengthening cooperation between the two countries, the process of EU's eastward expansion, and the joint initiative of the OSCE to promote cooperation and security. The meeting stressed the need to strengthen cooperation between the Council of Europe and the European Parliament, and suggested that the four-party meeting of the two organizations should be attended by representatives of the European Union and the European Commission.
- On February 10, 1999, the rotating chairman of the Council of the European Union, the Minister of State of the German Foreign Ministry, Fairhojgen, the member of the European Commission, Vandenbrook, the rotating chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Permanent Representative of Hungary to the Council, Bereni, the Secretary of the European Commission. Long Talches held the 13th quadripartite meeting in Strasbourg, affirming the positive significance of the EU's eastward expansion, arguing that this move will bring prosperity and stability to the European continent; exchange views on the Kosovo issue; The Charter of Rights and Duties was consulted.
- On March 14, 2000, the Secretary of State for European Affairs of the Council of the European Union, Costa Costa, European Commissioner Patten, the European Council Ministerial Council, the Irish Minister of State, Kette, and the European Commission Secretary-General Schwemerer The four-party conference was held in Lasburg, saying that the two organizations should work together to avoid trampling on democracy, law and human rights. The two sides expressed concern over the Russian Chechen issue. While reaffirming respect for Russia's territorial sovereignty, they demanded that Russia resolve the conflict peacefully, guarantee freedom of the press, and safeguard human rights. The two sides also indicated that they will further strengthen cooperation in Southeast Europe and affirm the contribution of the European Commission to the realization of the objectives of the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe.
- On April 3, 2001, the Swedish Prime Minister's Office of the President of the European Union was responsible for EU and international affairs, Danielson, European Commissioner Patten, European Council Ministerial Council President Latvia State Secretary Riyks Jinz and Europe Commissioner Schwemer held a four-party talks in Strasbourg, issued a "Partnership Cooperation Statement", proposed to jointly promote regional democracy and stability, and cooperated in promoting human rights; stressed the importance of maintaining stability in Southeast Europe, The Yugoslav Federation’s arrest of Milosevic welcomed the urging of full cooperation between the South and the Hague International Tribunal. The EU also informed the European Commission of the invitation to Russian President Vladimir Putin to participate in the EU Stockholm Summit.
- On November 20th, Ms. Naitz-Yobruck, Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Belgian Council of the European Union, the Council of the European Commission, Mr. Patten, the Chairman of the Council of the Council of Europe, Lithuanian Foreign Minister Valioni, and the Secretary General of the European Commission, Schweizer He held a four-party meeting in Brussels and proposed to contribute to strengthening international cooperation and jointly opposing terrorism. The two sides also discussed issues such as Russia, Ukraine, the South Caucasus and the EU's eastward expansion.
- Since Russia officially requested to join the European Commission in May 1992, the European Commission discussed the issue of absorbing its participation on various occasions. The Council of the European Commission passed a resolution in February 1995 to support the European Parliament's request that the EU not approve the "Partnership Agreement" with Russia, and decided to temporarily suspend the review of Russia's accession to the European Commission, and said that it will continue to use different channels. Russia maintains dialogue and contacts and continues to implement the “intergovernmental assistance program” aimed at strengthening Russia’s “democracy and human rights”.
- In April 1995, the foreign ministers of the European Commission met with the Russian Foreign Minister in Strasbourg and reiterated their desire to resolve the Chechen crisis as soon as possible. The Russian side once again expressed its desire to join the European Commission. On January 25, 1996, Russia was accepted as the 39th member state at the Council of Europe Parliamentary Meeting. At the same time, the European Commission has put forward many conditions for Russia. In addition to requiring it to abide by the European Convention on Human Rights formulated by the organization, it also requires it to ratify the Convention on the Protection of Minorities within one year after becoming a full member state and become a full member. From the date of the country, the death penalty was postponed, the death penalty was abolished within three years, the prison conditions were improved, the prison was placed under the jurisdiction of the judiciary, the Chechen conflict was resolved peacefully, the extradition convention was ratified, the disarmament commitment was fulfilled, and the property of some member states was returned.
- On September 28, 1999, the chairman of the European Commission, Joanston, issued a statement saying that the European Commission expressed concern about the violent clashes in Chechnya and supported Russia’s stance against terrorism, but asked it to stop blind air strikes, avoid civilian casualties, and urge Russia. Solve problems in a peaceful manner. On November 4th, the European Commission passed Resolution No. 1204, demanding that Russia stop its military strike against Chechnya and achieve a ceasefire. On December 13, the Council of the European Commission issued a statement warning that if Russia does not achieve a ceasefire, it will consider whether to continue to allow Russia to participate in the work of the Council of Europe.
- On April 6, 2000, the Council of the European Commission made a decision in Strasbourg to temporarily cancel the voting rights of the Russian parliamentary delegation on the European Commission on the grounds that Russia did not stop its military operations in Chechnya. In the first half of 2001, the European Commission resumed Russia’s voting rights, but on June 28 and July 12, the Chairman of the Council of Europe’s Parliament, Lord Johnston and the Secretary General of the European Commission, Schwemer, issued a statement on the way to deal with the Chechen issue against Russia. Dissatisfied with the action, urged Russia to solve the problem by political means, and said that frequent exchanges between the European Commission and Russia will help to promote convergence. From September 13 to 16, some members of the European Commission and the Russian State Duma formed a delegation to visit the Chechen region and the North Caucasus. Members of the European Commission once again suggested that they should seek a political solution to the Chechen issue.
- In the late 1970s, China began to establish contacts with the European Commission. The two sides have exchanges. In February 1979, the chairman of the European Commission, Koster, visited China. In October of the same year, the Chinese Ambassador to France attended the Council of Europe Committee meeting as a Chinese observer. In September 1980, Huang Hua, Vice Premier and Foreign Minister of the State Council, was invited to give a speech at the Council of the European Commission.
- In October 1985, the Speaker of the European Commission, Arens, visited China. In May 1988, the European Commission passed the "Report on Economic Relations and Cooperation between Europe and the People's Republic of China", requesting the member states of the European Commission and the European Community to give China more favorable treatment and expand the scope of the GSP to China. Many Chinese products have entered the European market and supported China’s return to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. On May 11-19, the same year, the Speaker of the European Commission, Louis, led a parliamentary delegation to visit China. From March 27 to April 2, 1994, the Speaker of the European Commission, Martinez, visited China at the invitation of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China. In September 1995, the Secretary-General of the European Commission, Daniel Talchis, led a delegation to Beijing to participate in the Fourth World Conference on Women.
- On June 18-19, 1998, Vice Chairman of the National People's Congress Jiang Chunyun led a delegation of the National People's Congress to the European Commission. On April 16-22, 1999, at the invitation of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, the President of the Council of Europe, Lord Russell Joneston, led an eight-member parliamentary delegation of the European Commission to pay an official goodwill visit to China. In August 2001, the Director of the Council of Foreign Relations of the European Commission, De Rong, visited China. In September, Li Shuzheng, deputy director of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, led a delegation to visit the European Commission and met with its speaker and secretary-general.
- "4" institutions in the European Union: European Commission, European Parliament, European Council, European Court of Justice. It is not accurate to describe the "European Commission" as a European Commission in newspapers and magazines. The European Commission is actually another independent institution. Although it and the European Commission are located in Strasbourg, they cannot be confused with the European Commission. The European Commission is equivalent to the "government" of Europe, but its functions have not yet reached the stage of government. The EU now has embassies in Beijing, and the links between China and the EU are also links between governments.
- The so-called EU Council is an organization composed of ministers from various countries to the EU headquarters. The work of ministers is to represent the interests of the country when the council discusses specific issues.
- The European Court of Justice was founded by the Italian jurist Grauer, and the court charter was drafted because of it.
- There are two stages in the development of the European Parliament. The first phase of the European Parliament is composed of members of the European Union parliaments. The second stage is produced by universal suffrage in member countries. But there are also problems with this. Because after all, Europe is still divided into different countries, it is difficult for a country's residents to have too much understanding of the situation of other countries' candidates. This has brought great difficulty to universal suffrage. You may not have noticed such an expression that the European Commission recommends the European Parliament to vote. This shows that the sovereignty of the EU has not yet been completely transferred from the committee to the parliament. This is because the EU is still developing. Its guiding ideology is clear, but its specific approach has not yet reached its ultimate goal. It has also been said in Yuli that the EU is still only a “reception unit”.
What Links Here
- Zheng Jianbang. Dictionary of International Relations: China Radio and Television Publishing House, 1992