Understanding how populations of neurons transform the activities of individual neurons into complex behaviors is one of the greatest challenges in neuroscience research.
However, current technologies for monitoring and controlling neurons do not provide sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to decipher the functions of neuronal circuits.
For this reason, multifunctional neurotechnologies that combine electrical, optical, and chemical sensing and stimulation modalities have been proposed to overcome resolution limitations. Research in multifunctional probes has fueled the demand for new materials for minimally invasive chronic brain interfaces.
It has recently emerged as a neural interface material that exhibits several outstanding properties such as optical transparency, flexibility, high conductivity, functionalization, and biocompatibility.
The unique combination of these properties in a single material system makes graphene an attractive choice for multimodal investigation of neural activity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in graphene-based neurotechnology, highlight different approaches, and discuss new directions inspired by graphene’s unique properties.