|Foreign name||Work station|
|Features||Data operation and graphics, image processing capabilities|
|Basis||Personal computer, distributed network computing|
- A workstation is a high-end, general-purpose microcomputer. It is designed for single-user use and provides more powerful performance than a personal computer, especially in terms of graphics processing capabilities and task parallelism. It is usually equipped with a large screen with high resolution, A screen display and a large-capacity internal memory and external memory, and a computer with extremely strong information and high-performance graphics and image processing functions. In addition, a terminal connected to a server can also be called a workstation.
- By computer and corresponding external equipment and packaged application software packages
- For example, a typical hardware configuration for a small CAD workstation is: a normal computer, a CRT terminal with function keys, a light pen, a flat plotter, a digitizer, a printer, etc. The software is configured as: operating system, compiler, corresponding database and database Management system, 2D and 3D drawing software, and complete set of calculation and analysis software packages. It can complete various mechanical submissions submitted by users.
- The main hardware configuration of the OA workstation is: ordinary computer, office terminal equipment (such as teletypewriter, interactive terminal, fax machine, laser printer, intelligent copier, etc.), communication facilities (such as local area network), program-controlled switch, public data Network, Integrated Services Digital Network, etc.) Software configuration: operating system, compiler, various service programs, communication software, database management system, email, word processing software, form processing software, various editing software and special business activities Software packages, such as personnel management, financial management, administrative affairs management and other software, and equipped with the corresponding database. The task of the OA workstation is to complete the processing of various office information.
- The main hardware configuration of the image processing workstation is: Top-level computer, generally including super performance graphics card (due to the development of CUDA parallel programming); Image digital equipment (including electronic, optical or electromechanical scanning equipment, digitizer), image output device, interactive image terminal. Software configuration In addition to the general system software, there must be a complete set of image processing software packages. It can complete various image processing tasks proposed by users. More and more computer manufacturers are in production and Sell a variety of workstations.
- According to different software and hardware platforms, workstations are generally divided into UNIX system workstations based on RISC (Reduced Instruction System) architecture and PC workstations based on Windows and Intel.
- PC workstations are based on high-performance Intel Xeon processors, using a stable WIN7 32/64-bit operating system, using graphics systems that conform to professional graphics standards (OpenGL 4.x and DirectX 11), plus high performance Storage, I/O (input/output), networking and other subsystems to meet the requirements of professional software operations; Linux-based workstations use a standard, open system platform that minimizes the cost of ownership - you Even Linux and Linux-based open source software can be used free of charge; workstations based on Mac OS and Windows use a standard, closed-source system platform, with high levels of data security and configuration in today's highly developed computer technology. The flexibility to configure workstation solutions for different needs.
- In addition, depending on the size and portability, workstations can be divided into desktop workstations and mobile workstations.
- The desktop workstation is similar to a normal desktop computer. It is bulky and has no portability, but it has strong performance and is suitable for professional users. The mobile workstation is actually a high-performance notebook. But its hardware configuration and overall performance are better than ordinary notebooks. The computer is one grade higher. Applicable models refer to the specific model series or model to which the workstation accessories are applied. Different workstations come standard with different hardware. The compatibility problem of workstation accessories is not as obvious as the server, but from stability and Compatibility and other considerations usually require the use of specific accessories, which is mainly determined by the nature of the workstation's work.
- CPU: In the early 1980s, RISC-based processors offered several orders of magnitude higher unit cost than CISC processors. It was during this period that CISC processor families (Intel's x86) gradually gained market share. In the mid-1990s, Intel's CPU finally had the same performance as RISC (although at the expense of much higher chip complexity) and drove the latter into a narrow market.
- In the current Intel Xeon series processors, dedicated CPUs designed for servers and workstations, with several different architectures, have unparalleled processing power. The outstanding feature is the integration of QPI memory controller, memory and CPU. The data communication no longer passes through the North Bridge control chip, breaking through the bottleneck of data exchange before CPU and memory. With the popularity of Intel 32nm technology, Intel Xeon quad-core or six-core become the current server/workstation with its powerful computing power. The choice of CPU.
- High-speed network connection (1000 Mbit/s or higher): Today's workstation integration is basically a 1000Mbit network card
- Large-screen display: Traditional CRT and ordinary LCD have become less and less able to meet the needs of professional graphics processing and simulation in color and screen division. High-end professional displays such as DELL U2410 have become mainstream.
- High-performance 3D graphics hardware: Workstations are largely integrated with graphics software. OPENGL4.1 and DIRECT 11 have been developed on current software. Only previous versions of professional graphics cards and non-professional game graphics cards have gradually been added. Unable to meet. Recently, the mainstream professional graphics cards have the Q600, Q2000, Q4000, Q5000, Q6000 and ATI V8800 and V9800.
- Redundant storage of disks: In general, RAID is never popular in the PC market. SCSI is an advanced control interface. It is especially effective when the disk needs to accept multiple access requests at the same time. This makes it suitable for use in servers. However, this feature has no advantage for most desktop PCs that are single-user operating systems. Currently, desktop systems gain more multi-user capabilities (due to the increase in the number of Linux), the new disk interface SATA has an approximation SCSI speed and lower cost, newer generations of SAS drives have faster speeds. Redundant arrays are currently storage arrays with multiple SATA drives in different RAID modes. Commonly used RAID 0 1 5 6 10, In addition to RAID 0, other modes must have three or more hard disks. The benefits of disk arrays are two: A increases the disk access speed by several times; B guarantees the security of data, one or more blocks. The disk is broken. After replacing the disk, you can rebuild it through RAID.
- The product type refers to the specific product type of the workstation accessories, such as graphics card, CPU, memory, hard disk, etc. The following is a brief introduction to some of the accessories.
- Graphics card
- As a major component of the graphics workstation, a powerful 3D professional
- Similar to the consumer graphics market, the competition in the 3D professional graphics market is becoming increasingly fierce. At present, the entire 3D professional graphics market has become the world of NVIDIA and AMD's acquisition of ATI. Due to different work requirements, the graphics card of the workstation is quite different from the consumer graphics card. A good graphics card in its field can perform poorly in another area. However, the current trend of nVIDIA and ATI is to unify entertainment products and professional-grade products into almost identical hardware architectures, even identical. The chip, controlled by peripheral circuits and software, is a consumer graphics card or a professional graphics card. The performance of professional graphics cards is also excellent, and the performance of the same parameters of the game graphics card and professional graphics performance is different.
- At present, the memory of mainstream workstations is ECC memory and REG memory. ECC is mainly used.
- Traditional workstation CPUs are generally non-Intel and AMD CPUs, while RISC architecture processors, such as PowerPC processors, SPARC processors, Alpha processors, etc., the corresponding operating system is generally UNIX or other specialized operating systems. New Intel NEHALEM architecture quad-core or six-core processor has the following characteristics: 1, large secondary L3 cache, three-level cache six-core or quad-core up to 12M; 2, the memory controller is directly integrated on the CPU through the QPI channel, completely solve the front-end bus bandwidth bottleneck; 3, Intel's unique kernel acceleration mode turbo mode is turned on as needed to turn off the kernel operation; 4, the third generation of hyper-threaded SMT technology.
- hard disk
- The hard disks currently used in workstation systems vary depending on the interface. There are mainly SAS hard disks, SATA (Serial ATA) hard disks, SCSI hard disks, and solid state hard disks. The requirements for hard disks are between ordinary desktops and servers, so low-end workstations are also used. You can use the same SATA or SAS hard drive as your desktop. Medium and high-end workstations use SAS or solid state drives.
- In general, workstations are mainly used in the following areas:
- Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing CAD/CAM
- This field is regarded as the traditional field of workstations. The use of CAD/CAM technology can greatly shorten the product development cycle, while reducing the development difficulty of high-tech products and improving the design quality of products. In the field of CAD, it is small to a small building. To a component, the graphics workstation shows a strong competitive advantage with its intuitive, high precision and high efficiency.
- Animation design
- The user base is mainly TV stations, advertising companies, film and television production companies, game software development companies,
- GIS Geographic Information System
- Its customer base is mainly urban planning units, environmental protection departments, geo-geological survey institutes, research institutes, etc. They usually use GIS software to run GIS software. It enables users to understand the project location and surrounding facilities in real time and intuitively. For details, such as lampposts, underground drains, etc. These large data volumes can only be run efficiently on workstations with professional graphics capabilities.
- Flat image processing
- It is an industry with a high degree of application popularity. Users usually use a graphics workstation as a hardware platform, and use PhotoShop, CorelDraw and other software as operating tools, dedicated to image image processing, advertising and promotional color page design, packaging design, textile design, etc. .
- In the military field, simulation technology is an effective means of training fighter pilots, tank drivers and simulating maritime navigation. In the field of scientific research and development, it enables designers to perform simulation runs on graphics workstations before making prototypes. Problem, modify the design.
- At present, many manufacturers have launched workstations suitable for different user groups, such as IBM, Lenovo, DELL (Dell), HP (HP), wiseteam, Zhengrui (domestic), etc. The manufacturers of industrial-grade integrated workstations have domestic NODKA and Advantech in Taiwan. Due to the compatibility of software and hardware and maximum performance, the assembly machine is generally unable to meet. All brand machines have passed multiple ISV certifications to varying degrees, only after passing software certification. The models are mature, stable, safe, and high-performance workstations that meet the requirements. For example, the Dell PRECESION T series workstations are certified by more than 80 independent software vendors, covering multiple industries and multiple fields. Dell in the field of workstations is the direct marketing network, the highest cost performance among peers; IBM and Lenovo's performance is the best, but the price is very expensive; HP is good, the price is very expensive; domestic Zhengrui products are also good. The brand's workstations have dealers in Zhongguancun, such as Dell's Zhongjin Gaoke New Materials Co., Ltd., which can be learned from the Zhongguancun dealer website.Brand mainstream configuration and dealer information.
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