Tang Dynasty

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Tang Dynasty logo
Title Info
English name Tang Dynasty
Chinese name 唐朝
Foreign name Tang Dynasty
Nickname Tang, Tang Guo, Li Tang, Datang, Giant Tang [1]
Time 618-907 AD
National leader Li Yuan, Li Shimin, Li Zhi, Li Longji, etc.
Capital Chang'an 618-904, Luoyang 904-907 [2]
Main city Weizhou, Chengdu, Songzhou, Taiyuan, Yangzhou, etc.
Official language Yayan
Currency Kaiyuan Tongbao
Population 80.5 million (Tianbao fourteen years) [3]
Major ethnic group Han nationality
National Land area 12.37 million square kilometers (long years) [4]
Founder Li Yuan
Policy Three provinces
Election system Imperial Examination System
Political system Monarchy
Technological achievement Engraving, gunpowder, Qufu, etc.

Tang Dynasty[edit]

  • Tang Dynasty (Chinese historical dynasty).
  • The Tang Dynasty (618-907) was the Great Unification Dynasty after the Sui Dynasty. It was a 21-year-old emperor. It was 289 years old. Because of the royal family name Li, it is also known as Li Tang. One of China's most powerful eras.
  • At the end of the dynasty, the world began to rise together. In 617, Tang Guogong Li Yuan Jinyang took up the army, and the following year he became the Tang Dynasty in Chang'an. After Tang Taizong succeeded to the throne, he created the rule of Zhenguan. Tang Gaozong inherited the legacy of the reign of the eternal life. In 690, Wu Zetian used the Zhou Dynasty Tang Dynasty to set the capital Luoyang. In 705, after the Shenlong Revolution, Tang Zhongzong restored the Tang Dynasty. [5][6] After the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, he made great efforts to create a world of Kaiyuan. [7] At the end of Tianbao, the national population reached 80 million. [8][9] After the Anshi rebellion, the separation of the town and the eunuch's dictatorship led to a decline in national power. In the middle and late period, Tang Xianzong and Zhongxing, Tang Wuzong Huichang Zhongxing, and Tang Xuanzong ruled the country. In 878, the outbreak of the Huangchao uprising destroyed the foundation of the Tang Dynasty. In 907, Zhu Wenyu and Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty fell, and China entered the Five Dynasties and Ten States. [10]
  • The Tang Dynasty was the largest in the territory, and it was the only Great Plains dynasty dynasty that did not build the Great Wall. [11][12] The land of the Tang Dynasty is beyond the boundaries of modern China in the west and north. [13] After the Tang Dynasty self-tapping the East Turkistan and Xue Yantuo, the emperor was respected by the four Yi people. [14][15] In addition, the system of the Turks, Hui, Tie, Qidan, Yi, and Shiwei was attacked by the system to attack the enemy, and the countries such as Nanxun, Silla, Bohai, and Japan learned their own culture and system. [16]
  • The Tang Dynasty technology, culture, economy, and art have diversified characteristics [17] In the poetry, books, paintings, a large number of famous people, such as Shi Xian Li Bai, Shi Sheng Du Fu, poetry Bai Juyi, calligrapher Yan Zhenqing, painting St. Wu Daozi, Li Sixun, musician Li Guinian and so on. [18] The Tang Dynasty accepted the exchanges and study of nationalities at home and abroad to form an open international culture. [19][20]
  • The Tang Dynasty was the most powerful empire in the world at that time. Its reputation grew overseas and it had contacts with Asian and European countries. [21] After the Tang Dynasty, many overseas Chinese were called the Tang people. [22][23]

Country code[edit]

  • The national name of the Tang Dynasty was "Tang", and the original meaning was the ancient name of Jin. Tang Gaozu’s grandfather, Li Hu, was one of the eight pillars of the Western Wei Dynasty and was chased as “Tang Guogong”. [24] Later, the title was passed to Li Yuan. Li Yuan was staying in Jinyang when he was in the palace of the Sui Dynasty. He was a soldier in the name of "Yu". Every battle will be gram, straight into Chang'an, and after the emperor Yang Lanchan made the emperor, he used the "Tang" as the national number. Because the monarch is surnamed Li, it is also called Li Tang, and he is called Datang. [25][26]
  • Tang Dynasty map
    During the heyday of the Tang Dynasty, it achieved high achievements in politics, economy, culture, and diplomacy. It was one of the world's powerful countries. The neighboring countries such as Silla, Goguryeo, Baekje, Bohai and Japan have been greatly influenced by the Tang Dynasty in terms of their political system and social culture. [16][20][27] In the first half of the Tang Dynasty, society and economy were in a rising stage, and the culture was advanced. It was a period of great export of culture and technology from China to neighboring countries in history. It was an inclusive social atmosphere and also entered the various ethnic groups in the country since the 16 countries. Providing an unprecedented communication and integration environment, the rulers also draw a lot from foreign civilizations. In the late Tang Dynasty, during the transition period of Chinese history, the reform of land, salt and iron, and taxation system marked the change of society. The prosperity from the mid-term period was mainly reflected in the prosperity of industry and commerce. [28][29]

History[edit]

Datang Founding[edit]

  • Datang Gaozu Li Yuan
    The royal family of the Tang Dynasty came from Lishi, West Anhui. [30] One said that the six-nation Xiliang founding monarch Li Wei was his distant ancestor. At that time, the Li family was also an important member of the Northern Weiguan military aristocratic group. [24] From the Qin Dynasty, Li Shi’s Li was a famous family of military generals, and there were famous generals such as Li Han of the Western Han Dynasty and Li Xin, the famous general of Qin. In the "Old Tang Book" and "New Tang Book", it is said that the Tang Dynasty royal family Li is a descendant of Li Er (Lao Zi). During the Northern Zhou Dynasty, Li’s family policy was pursued, and Li’s name was given to Hu’s “Da’s.” In the weekend of the Northern Weekend, Emperor Wendi restored it to Li [31][32] . During the period of the great cause of the Sui Dynasty, due to the abuse of national power by the Emperor Sui and the failure of the three levies Goguryeo, the people of the Sui Dynasty changed. [29] Li Yuan saw the chaos in the world, and the demise of the Sui Dynasty could not be reversed, so he gave birth to the idea of replacing it. [33] .
  • In the thirteenth year of the great cause (617 years), Tang Guogong Li Yuan started his military in Jinyang in the name of honor. He took advantage of the road and captured Chang'an in November. He was the emperor of Yang Yi, and changed Yuan Yining, that is, Emperor Gong. Li Yuan has been a prime minister and has entered the Tang Dynasty. In the second year of Yining (618), the Emperor Sui died, in May, Yang Yuchan was located in Li Yuan, Li Yuan called the emperor, established the Tang Dynasty, the country name "Tang", changed Yuan Wude, Dingdu Chang'an, and the Sui Dynasty perished. Yang Lan was reduced to a nationality, and he lived in Chang'an, and died in May of the following year. Later, Li Yuanshu’s eldest son, Li Jiancheng, was the Prince, the second son Li Shimin was the Qin Wang, and the fourth son Li Yuanji was the Qi Wang. [32][34]
  • The rich wealth left by the Northern Zhou and Nanchen and the early days of the dynasty was destroyed by the turmoil at the end of the dynasty, the economy was severely damaged, and the population plummeted to more than 2 million households. [35] The external East Turkistan was unprecedentedly strong, and the East was from Qidan, Shiwei, Xidu Tuyu, Gaochang, and all of them belonged to Dongtu, and internal Dou Jiande, Xue Ju, Liu Wuzhou, Liang Shidu, Li Wei, Wang Shichong and other separatist forces also surrendered. Turkic [36][37], Turkic wants to emulate the Northern Weidao Wudi into the Central Plains [38] The foreign enemies were unprecedentedly strong, but the Central Plains dynasty was severely weakened by internal divisions and the situation was very serious. [39]
  • Before Li Yuan entered the main Guanzhong, he first sent a tout to the Wagang Army Li Mi, making it a barrier to the Central Plains. After entering the Guanzhong area, Li Shimin sent Xueju and Xue Renqi of the Jincheng in the northwest, and sent Tang to make An Xinggui and An Xiuren born to the Li Wei of Wuwei. In 620, Li Shimin defeated Liu Wuzhou and Song Jingang who invaded Hedong (southwestern Shanxi), and then Luoyang Zhengdi Wang Shichong and Hebei Xiawang Dou Jiande jointly resisted Tang. In 622, Li Shimin defeated the coalition forces, captured Dou Jiande, and Wang Shichong surrendered. Liu Jian, the remainder of Dou Jiande, was also defeated by Li Jiancheng, and Hebei was settled here. In 623, the auxiliary public 祏 rate of Du Fuwei in the Danyang (now Nanjing, Jiangsu) anti-Tang, was captured by the Tang army in the following year, according to Jiangling's Xiao milling was in 621 by Li Jing, Li Xiaogong led the army. In the following year, Lingnan Feng An surrendered, and Zhangzhou Lin Shihong died, so the Tang Dynasty basically unified Handi. [40][41][42]

Zhi Guanzhi[edit]

Tang Taizong Li Shimin
  • Qin Wang Li Shimin and Prince Li Jiancheng struggled for the throne. In 626, Li Shimin launched the transformation of Xuanwumen, killing the Prince Li Jiancheng and Qi Wang Li Yuanji, and controlling Chang'an. Li Yuan knew the situation, so he gave the emperor the throne and became the emperor. Li Shimin succeeded to the throne, for Tang Taizong. Tang Taizong Li Shimin ordered the repair of Luoyang Metropolis, known as Luoyang Palace, Li Shimin was in the period of Luoyang before and after 11 years. [43]
  • Emperor Taizong recognized the strength of the masses from the end of the martyrdom, absorbed the lessons of annihilation, and attached importance to the lives of the people; paying attention to the rule of the mind, selecting the sages and appointing talents, knowing how to make good use of them, reusing the levies of Wei Zheng and others; A series of policies, such as agriculture-based, pragmatic saving, recuperating, revitalizing culture and education, and perfecting the imperial examination system, have led to a relatively stable situation in the society; and vigorously calming foreigners, respecting ethnic customs, promoting national integration, and stabilizing the frontier, Tang Taizong Respected by the Quartet countries as "Tian Khan." During his ruling period of Zhenguan (627-649), under the joint efforts of the monarch and minister, there was a situation in which the politics were clearer, economic development, social stability, and martial arts flourished. The history was called "the rule of Zhenguan." This was the first governance of the Tang Dynasty, and laid a solid foundation for the later Kaiyuan prosperity. [44]

The rule of Yonghui[edit]

  • In the later years of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, the prince Li Chengzhen and the Wei Wang Li Tai struggled, and the results were all abolished, and the ninth son Jin Zhi Li Zhi was the prince. In the twenty-third year of the Zhenguan (649), Tang Gaozong Li Zhi was in place and the Tang Dynasty capital moved to Luoyang. [45][46] At the beginning of the throne, he continued to implement the various political and economic systems formulated by Emperor Taizong, and he was co-administered with Chang Sun Wu Ji and Yan Liang. The monarchs and ministers have kept in mind the remains of Taizong's relics, and they have been obsessed with the Taizong command and ordered to marry and love the people. [41][47]
  • After Li Zhi was in position, he announced to the ministers: "There are things that are inconvenient for the people, and they are suitable for Chen. [48] "And the day of the thorns into the cabinet, asked the people suffering; Taizong training Chongzhen, Tang Gaozong called: "Since the official and the foreign state have sacrificed hawks and dogs and horses." ” [48][49] Tang Gaozong’s monarchs, Xiao Cao Cao, follow the Tang Taizong’s decree, so during the Yonghui period, Bian’an settled. [50], the people [51] There is a legacy of Zhenguan, which is called "the rule of Yonghui". During his reign, the Tang Dynasty had the most extensive territory. [52]

Wu Zhou period[edit]

Wu Zetian, the only female emperor in Chinese history
  • After the middle period of Tang Gaozong, the political power was gradually mastered by Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian was the talent of Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty. Tang Taizong was summoned to the palace by Tang Gaozong. Wu Zetian won the power struggle and was established as a queen. The history is called "Su Duo Zhi Ji, and is involved in the history of literature" [53] . In 660, Tang Gaozong asked Wu Zetian to deal with the political affairs for physical reasons. Wu Zetian and Tang Gaozong were also called "two holy". [41][54] . After Tang Gaozong’s death [55] The Prince Li Xian was in place and was for Tang Zhongzong. Because of the disagreement with Tang Zhongzong, Wu Zetian soon abolished it as the King of Fuling, and changed the four sons of Li Dan to the emperor, which was Tang Ruizong. In 690, Wu Zetian decided Xu Jingye to rebel, abolished Tang Ruizong, following the emperor's position, changed the country number to Zhou, the history called Wu Zhou, Dingdu Luoyang, changed Luoyang to the gods, and lowered Li Dan to Huangfu, Wu Zetian became Chinese history. The only female emperor. [10][56][57][58][59] During Wu Zetian's power and emperor's reign, the imperial examination system was further improved; Wu Zetian initiated the palace test and the Wuju. [60][61] Since Wu Zetian took power, he has cracked down on the Guanyu Group and vigorously promoted the officials from the civil service. He was called the “Beimen Bachelor”, many of whom were from the Central Plains, Kanto and Jiangnan, and vigorously promoted talents such as Di Renjie and Zhang Huazhi. Zhang Renyuan, Yao Chong and other famous generals. [62] During the period of Emperor Wu Zetian's reign, social culture and art also made progress. At that time, Buddhism Daxing and Wu Zetian's Buddhist temples were frequently built. The extended Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang were the representatives of this period. The history of the Wu Zetian period is "the ruling of the ruling, the opening of the Yuan Dynasty" or "the political opening of the Yuan Dynasty, the governance of the Hong dynasty." [57][63][64][65]
  • In the first year of Shenlong (705), the goddess and the prime minister Zhang Qingzhi launched the Shenlong coup, forced Wu Zetian to abdicate, Li Xian reset, restored the Datang State, and Li Dan was established as the king. Tang Zhongzong has always been influenced by Wei Queen, his daughter Anle Princess and Wu Zetian’s old party, Yu Wusisi, and others, such as Zhang Huazhi and Jing Jing, who have been exiled or killed. The Queen of Wei intends to become the second Wu Zetian, and Princess Anle once asked to be established as the Crown Prince. In the four years of Jinglong (710 years), Wei Queen and Princess Anle conspired to kill Tang Zhongzong. Wei Huang Li Wen Wang Li Zhongmao was the emperor, and he was the Emperor of Tang Dynasty and wanted to harm Wang Lidan. Li Dan’s son, Li Longji of Linyi Wang, was mobilized by the Princess Taiping to launch the Tanglong coup, killing the Queen of Wei, Princess Anle and the remnants of Wu’s reign, and Li Dan’s reset. [66][67]

Kaiyuan Shengshi[edit]

  • After Tang Ruizong's reset, his sister Taiping princess and the prince Li Longji had a power struggle. In the first year of Yanhe (712), Tang Ruizong gave way to Li Longji, which was Tang Xuanzong. The following year, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang gave death to the Princess Taiping, and the party feathers killed or killed, ending the political battle. [68][69]
  • Each version of the Kaiyuan Territory map
    Tang Xuanzong rectified the malices since the Wu Zhou period, and politically promoted Yao Chong, Song Yi, Zhang Jialu, Zhang Shu, Li Yuanzhang, Han Xiu, Zhang Jiuling and other sages. [70] And established a set of inspection systems [71], streamlining the bureaucracy, cutting down the bureaucracy [72] The interviews made the development of the festival system, which led to the increase of local power; the economic promotion of thrift, suppression of Buddhism, and the almost ruined warehouse system [73] And through households and other means to alleviate the problem of escaping caused by land mergers [74] Military reform of the military system for the recruitment of troops, and the resumption of Ma Zheng [75] Recovered the western Liaoning Yingzhou [76] And the land of Hexi Jiuqu given to Tubo in the period of Tang Ruizong [77] And once again surrendered to the national regimes such as Qidan, Yi, Shiwei, and Yi [78][79], the Western Region annexed the size of the law [80][81] And attacking the ride [82] After the Saibei area surrendered to the country after the resurrection [83] And then support the 鹘 鹘 鹘 鹘 鹘 [84][85] .
  • Under the rule of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty gradually entered the prosperous age [86][87] History is called "Kaiyuan Shengshi" [88] It is considered to be the most prosperous period in Chinese history. [65][89][90]

Anshi’s chaos[edit]

  • Tang Xuanzong
    After the Tang Emperor Xuanzong changed Yuan Tianbao, the flattening period was long, the country had nothing to do, and the ruler gradually lost the spirit of seeking governance. He was full of enthusiasm and began to indulge in pleasure, thus neglecting state affairs. After the Na Yang Yuhuan is a noble, it is even more intoxicating. Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty used Li Linwei, who had the notoriety of "speaking the belly sword", for the prime minister for 18 years. [91] Make the government corrupt. After Li Lin’s death, Yang Guozhong was in the middle of the situation, and there was a situation in which the eunuch was in power. The power of Gao Lishi was hot. [92] The Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty was so happy that the border generals often provoked war against the aliens and invited the war. Since the military system was changed from the military system to the recruitment system, the festival was combined with the soldiers in the military town, resulting in the situation of the special forces. [93] Among them, An Lushan, the Huren who has mastered the heavy military, is the most important.
  • In the 14th year of Tianbao (755), Anlushan and Tang Dynasty political corruption, military emptiness, and Shi Siming launched a rebellion. In December of the following year, the rebels attacked Luoyang, and Tang Xuanzong fled to Chengdu. The history is called "the chaos of Anshi." [69] Prince Li Heng was the emperor in Lingwu, and it was for Tang Suzong, and Tang Xuanzong was respected as the emperor. An Lushan claimed to be the emperor of Dayan in Luoyang, and the year was Shengwu.
  • Tang Zhide two years (AD 757) in the first month, Henan provincial deputy Zhang Zhang, Fuyang Taishou Xu Yuan and others led the military and civilians to adhere to the Sui and Tang Dynasties Grand Canal throat, Jianghuai barrier Fuyang (now Henan Shangqiu), in the battle of Fuyang, rebellion Yin Ziqi was reported to be the enemy of repeated defeats, so that hundreds of thousands of troops before and after Anqingxu were hampered by four thousand defenders in Xiangyang City. The city’s tough battle lasted for ten months, which enabled the Tang Dynasty to counterattack and enable Guo Ziyi to recover the two Beijings with ease. [65][94]
  • The eight-year-old Anshi rebellion caused the Tang Dynasty to be greatly hurt, and it has since turned from bad to bad. The power of the central government has been greatly weakened, and the power of the festival has increased. At this time, the average land system has gradually collapsed, and the phenomenon of land annexation has become increasingly serious. After the war, the people in the Tang Dynasty were sharply reduced, and the land was ridiculously ridiculous. [65]
  • During the Tang Dynasty, Liu Wei reformed the salt law and improved the state's finances. Tang Dezong appointed Yang Yan as the phase. In the first year of Jian Jianzhong (780), the two-tax law was introduced. The tax was levied on land in the summer and autumn. Tang Dezong also tried to calm down, but caused Zhu Xi, Li Xilie, and Zhu Xi to rebel, and there was a war of hardships that lasted for five years. In the end, although the rebellion was ruined, the Tang dynasty compromised with the rest of the town, on the condition that the king was abolished, and the court recognized their right to rule in the locality, and the situation was further deepened. [65]

Yuan and Zhongxing[edit]

Guo Ziyi, who calms the chaos of Anshi
  • In the Tang Dynasty, there were foreigners such as Tubo, Huishun, and Nanzhao. The eunuchs were in power, and the banned military power and even the emperor's support were decided by the eunuch. The festival made the local authorities have independent management rights and became the internal and external troubles of the Tang Dynasty. After Tang Dezong’s death, after the transitional stage of Tang Shunzong, [95] Then, Tang Xianzong, who was supported by the eunuch in Yongzheng Zen, was enthroned. After he took the throne, he often read the records of the classics. Every time he read stories such as Zhenguan and Kaiyuan, he admired them. Tang Xianzong took the example of the sage of the sacred monarch, summed up the historical experience, paid attention to the role of the ministers, and dared to use the ministers and ministers as the prime minister. Li Chun was in the Yanying Hall and the prime minister, and they retired very late. During his 15 years in office, Tang Xianzong had more political achievements, political reforms, and diligent political affairs. He achieved great results in the Yuan and the reduction, and revived the prestige of the central government, which made the Tang Dynasty’s Zhongxing meteorology. Unite again. [65][96][97]

Smashing the party[edit]

  • In the last years of Tang Xianzong, the dispute between the ministers headed by Niu Wei and Li Deyu became more and more fierce, making the eunuch more powerful. The two parties, Niu and Li, have successively ruled, and the history is called "the cattle and Li party struggle." [65]
  • In the 9th year of Taihe (835), Tang Wenzong and Li Xun and Zheng Zhu launched the change of Ganlu, conspiring to kill the eunuch, but failed. Later, the eunuchs united; the group officials only borrowed the strength of the town to fight against the eunuch's power, and buried the seeds of the direct conflict between the town and the eunuch in the late Tang Dynasty. [98][99]

Huichang Zhongxing[edit]

  • After the death of Tang Wenzong, Tang Wuzong, under the support of the eunuch, Qiu Shiliang, passed the faction struggle and succeeded the Yuan Huichang. Tang Wuzong re-used Li Deyu, the leader of the Li Party, to reduce the power of the hero. During the period of Tang Wuzong's administration, the functions of Zhongshu Province played a better role, and the power of the eunuch was relatively weakened. Tang Wuzong, who has many dissatisfaction with the eunuch, did not take extreme measures to solve it like Tang Wenzong. Instead, it draws on the lessons of Tang Wenzong’s failure, and instead uses Yang as a respect, but in reality it gradually becomes a colder means. [98][100]
    Li Deyu
  • In the middle and late Tang Dynasty
    In April of the second year of Huichang (842), the eunuch of the sergeant, Shih-shi, saw that Wu Zong became more and more close to Li Deyu, fearing that the eunuch would lose power, and then spread rumors and proverbs, saying that the prime minister and the stipulations agreed to reduce the expenses of the banned army clothes and horse fodder. Enraged the banned army to make trouble. Li Deyu immediately heard the incident to Tang Wuzong after hearing the news. Tang Wuzong was indignant and took out the monarch's sect. He sent a squad to the left and right army to go to Yibu's imperial purpose: "This matter is purely rumored, everything is a sly arrangement, nothing to do with the prime minister, and so on. The mouth is yellow. [101] The soldiers were shocked. [65]
  • After the conspiracy of Qiu Shiliang was exposed, he had to plead guilty to Tang Wuzong. Tang Wuzong did not take the opportunity to take further action against him, but instead promoted him to the military commander to lead the left and right army. In nominal terms, it has been promoted, but in reality it has been deprived of control over the ban. Qiu Shiliang understood Tang Wuzong’s attitude towards him and knew that his situation was not good. He retired and resigned with physical illness. Tang Wuzong pushed the boat and agreed to his resignation, and he was appointed as an internal servant. The internal servant did not do how long, based on the general trend has gone, no hope of resurgence, Qiu Shiliang was forced to resign. Tang Wuzong smashed back to Wushang Khan and his ministry, and rebelled against the town of Dingze. In the period of the reign of the town, surrender. Tang Wuzong’s series of revitalization of the imperial court’s achievements, known as Huichang Zhongxing. Tang Wuzong attaches importance to Taoism and prohibits Buddhism and Nestorianism other than Taoism. Therefore, in the history of Buddhism, one of the three monarchs who died in Buddhism was named the monarch of the martial arts. [65][100]

The rule of Dazhong[edit]

  • Tang Xuanzong Li Wei
    After the death of Tang Wuzong, the eunuch chose Li Wei to inherit the throne and wanted to continue to maintain politics. Tang Xuanzong, who was not in the position, was apparently an incompetent person who was easily used by eunuchs. After he was in the position, he worked hard to rectify Li Deyu, ending the struggle between the cattle and Li parties; restraining the excessive expansion of the eunuch's forces; During his reign, Xuan Zongqian ruling the country, sympathizing with the people, reducing taxes, and focusing on selecting talents. I changed Tang Wuzong’s policy of blocking Buddhism and once again respected Buddhism. [65][102] During the Tang Xuanzong period, Zhang Xuanchao led the people of Shazhou and other places to get rid of the leader of the Tubo aristocracy, expelled the Tubo Guards in the Hexi region, and returned the 11th states such as melon and sand to the Tang Dynasty. In February of the seventh year of Xiantong (866), Zhang Xuanchao played the court, and he had already returned to the princes, Gu Junjun, Fuzhou, Beiting, Luntai, Qingzhen and other cities. In October of the same year, the servant Gu Jun and the Tubo generals were still in hot fighting and defeated the Tubo army. The Tubo people fled to Qinzhou, and they were attacked by the heart and defeated. They played in Lingnan. Tubo dying. The suppression of the Hexi River made Tang Ting without the worries of the West. The Tang Dynasty’s national situation has improved, and the people have become increasingly wealthy, which has brought the already declining political administration to a "Zhongxing" well-off situation. In fact, the temporary treatment of the big and the middle is not stable. In the later years of Tang Xuanzong, there was chaos in the country, and he broke out soon after his death. [103]

Sunset west mountain[edit]

  • After Tang Xuanzong, Tang Yuzong and Tang Yuzong were famous incompetent faint kings, which made the Tang Dynasty go downhill. [104] In the late Tang Dynasty, the war continued, the economic and political recession, the Tang Xuanzong in the thirteenth year of the Dazhong (859 years), the outbreak of the people's change, the Jiangnan area of the Tang Dynasty's economic lifeline was attacked by the Yellow Nest, and the Tang Dynasty rule existed in name only. [105] After the chaos of the Yellow Nest, the economic foundation of the Tang Dynasty was broken, and the banned army managed by the eunuch was also overburdened. The prime minister and the eunuch competed for power. After the Huang Chao uprising, Tang Yuzong died in the turmoil of the late Tang Dynasty. The throne was succeeded by his brother Tang Zhaozong and moved to Luoyang. [105][106] In the five years of Ganning (898), a coup d'état of Liu Jishu and others, Shen Zhaozong, was placed under house arrest. Prince Li Yu began to supervise the country. On the same day, the eunuch was passed down, saying that Tang Zhaozong retired as the emperor and made the emperor The Prince is in place and the year is Guanghua. [65][107]
  • Peasant War Map
    In the first year of the resurrection (901), Cui Wei and Sun Dezhao defeated Liu Jishu, welcoming Tang Zhaozong to reset, and Li Yu re-degraded Wang. Zhu Wen and Li Ke used to become the man of the Tang Dynasty. In the courts of the imperial courts, with the support of Zhu Wen, the prime minister sent a victory, and the Xuanwu Festival made Zhu Wen enter the palace to do his best. In the first year of Tianyou (904), Zhu Wen sent troops to Chang'an, and Tang Zhaozong moved to Luoyang, and then Tang Zhaozong was killed. [107] In the second year of God (905), Zhu Wenda rushed to the official, and killed more than 30 courtiers in Baima Temple (now Hua County, Henan Province), and cast his corpse in the river, known as the White Horse. Zhu Quanzhong wanted to wait for the reunification and then seized the throne. However, due to the loss of the area south of the Huaihe River, he forced the Tang Dynasty Emperor Zen to advance in 907. [108] . Four years of God bless (907 years), Zhu Wen forced the Tang Dynasty Emperor Li Yu to sing the Zen, the Tang Dynasty perished and enjoyed the country for 290 years. Zhu Wen changed the country's Liang, the history called the back beam, for Liang Taizu, changed Yuan Kaiping, and set the capital Kaifeng. [65][109]
  • The late Tang Dynasty and the Southern Tang Dynasty, which were built by Li Cunxin of the Five Dynasties, claimed to be the successors of the Tang Dynasty and used "Tang" as the national name.

Territory[edit]

  • The largest period of the Tang Dynasty was during the Tang Emperor Gaozong's Longyan period. At that time, the oasis of Central Asia was dominated by the Tang Dynasty. The largest area was to the south of Luofu (now Vietnam), the northern part of Xuanzang (now Russia), the west and the rest of the state ( Today, Uzbekistan), east of the vast territory of Gobe State (now Jilin Tonghua), [110] Land area of 12.37 million square kilometers [4] Another said 10.76 million square kilometers [111] . When Wu Zhou was in the north, it fell into the post-arc. After the Anshi Rebellion, the Western Region was captured by the Tubo. In the late Tang Dynasty, it shrank to the Han Dynasty, but still retained the Hetao area. [13]

Territorial scope[edit]

  • The territory of the Tang Dynasty rose from the Korean Peninsula to the east during the heyday, to the Hue area of Vietnam in the south, to the Aral Sea in Central Asia and the Khorasan area. [31] North Bekaer to the Yenisei River. There are many ethnic minorities in the Tang Dynasty. In order to effectively manage the various ethnic groups such as Turkic, Rehabilitation, Tiel, Shiwei, Qidan, Yi, and so on, they set up the six major capitals of Anxi, Anbei, Anton, Annan, Shanyu and Beiting. And a large number of Dudufu and Zhangzhou, which are affiliated to the six major capitals. [16][112] However, in the decades after the Anshi Rebellion, due to the large number of riverside soldiers participating in the chaos, the border defense was emptied, the Tubo rushed into the river and the Lishui area, while the Hetao area was still under the jurisdiction of the Tiande Army and the Zhenwu Army. Until the late Tang Dynasty, Dazhong and Xiantong years, Shazhou people Zhang Yichao began to recover the Hehuang area, reopened the Silk Road, and ravaged the Tubo civil strife. In the seven years of Xiantong, the Tubo was defeated and divided into more than one hundred tribes.

Administrative division[edit]

  • Tang Dynasty map
    The Tang Dynasty created the establishment of the Taoist government in the history of the Chinese political district. In the first year of the Zhenguan (627), Tang Taizong divided the world into 10 lanes: Guanzhong, Henan, Hedong, Hebei, Shannan, Longyou, Huainan, Jiangnan, Jiannan, Lingnan, etc., but these roads have no actual power, Tang Dynasty The city level is mainly the general administration, the Dudu government, the festival, etc., and the state is below the state and county. In the 14th year of the Zhenguan (640 years), there were 360 states (fu) in the country, and 1557 counties under the jurisdiction. In the first year of the Kaiyuan period, Shannan and Jiangnan were divided into two parts, and the three sections of Gyeonggi, Toei and Suizhong were added to form a pattern of fifteen. The county set up a county, a prefecture, a state, and a sub-district. In the late Yuan Dynasty, there were 328 states and prefectures, and 1, 573 county counties. [112][113]
  • Where 351 states (prefectures, capitals)
Road Governance Under The Jurisdiction
Guan Nei Road Fengxiang House (now Shaanxi Fengxiang) Jingshi (Chang'an), Jingzhao, Huazhou, Tongzhou, Fangzhou, Danzhou, Fengxiang, Xiezhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Ningzhou, Gyeongju, Nazhou, Dingzhou, Zhangzhou, Yinzhou, Xiazhou, Lingzhou, Yanzhou, Fengzhou, Huizhou, Zhangzhou, Shengzhou, Linzhou, Anbei Dadu
Henan Road Luoyang (now Luoyang City, Henan Province) Dongdu (Luoyang), Henan Province, Xiangyang County (Songzhou), Zhangzhou, Mengzhou, Shaanxi, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Xuzhou, Caizhou, Chenzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Handan State, Zhangzhou, Haizhou, Zhangzhou, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Zhangzhou, Mizhou, Qizhou, Qingzhou, Zhangzhou, Laizhou, Dengzhou
Hedong Road 河中府 (now Shanxi Yongji West) Hezhongfu, Zhangzhou, Jinju, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Cizhou, Zhangzhou, Zezhou, Zhangzhou, Liaozhou, Taiyuan (Beijing), Weizhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Shizhou, Zhangzhou, Yunzhou, Shanyu Dufu
Hebei Road Weizhou (now northeast of Da Ming, Hebei) Huaizhou, Weizhou, Xiangzhou, Weizhou, Zhangzhou, Bozhou, Beizhou, Luozhou, Cizhou, Xingzhou, Zhaozhou, Zhangzhou, Shenzhou, Zhangzhou, Jingzhou, Dezhou, Dingzhou, Zhangzhou, Yi State, Zhangzhou, Mozhou, Youzhou, Zhangzhou, Tanzhou, Zhangzhou, Pingzhou, Shunzhou, Guishun, Yingzhou, Yanzhou, Weizhou, Shenzhou, Xuzhou, Chongzhou, Yibin, Shishi State, Xianzhou, Dazhou, Lizhou, Wozhou, Changzhou, Guiyi, Ruizhou, Xinzhou, Qingshan, Zhangzhou, Andong
Shannan Road Fuyang (now Hubei Fuyang) Xingyuanfu, Xingzhou, Fengzhou, Lizhou, Tongzhou, Yangzhou, Zezhou, Hezhou, Jizhou, Bazhou, Pengzhou, Bizhou, Shangzhou, Jinzhou, Kaizhou, Quzhou, Zhangzhou, Dengzhou, Tangzhou, Junzhou, Fangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Fuzhou, Jiangling, Zhangzhou, Guizhou, Zhangzhou, Wanzhou, Chungju
Huainan Road Yangzhou (now Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province) Yangzhou, Chuzhou, Hezhou, Zhangzhou, Shouzhou, Gwangju, Zhangzhou, Shenzhou, Huangzhou, Anzhou, Shuzhou
Gangnam Road Yuezhou (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang) Runzhou, Changzhou, Suzhou, Huzhou, Hangzhou, Yuezhou, Mingzhou, Taizhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Xinzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Chuzhou, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou, Jianzhou, Tingzhou, Zhangzhou, Xuanzhou, Chizhou, Hongzhou, Zhangzhou, Fuzhou, Jizhou, Jiangzhou, Yuanzhou, Ezhou, Yuezhou, Tanzhou, Hengzhou, Zhangzhou, Langzhou, Yongzhou, Daozhou, Zhangzhou, Shaozhou, Lianzhou, Handan State, Chenzhou, Jinzhou, Shizhou, Wuzhou, Yizhou, Bozhou, Sizhou, Feizhou, Nanzhou, Xizhou, Zhangzhou, Zhenzhou, Zhangzhou
Right road Governance in Zhangzhou (now Qinghai Ledu) Qinzhou, Chengzhou, Zhangzhou, Lanzhou, Linzhou, Hezhou, Wuzhou, Zhangzhou, Jiaozhou, Diezhou, Zhangzhou, Liangzhou, Ganzhou, Guazhou, Yizhou, Shazhou, Xizhou, Anxi Dufu, Beiting Dufu
Jiannan Road Governing House Chengdu (now Chengdu, Sichuan) Chengdu, Hanzhou, Pengzhou, Zhangzhou, Meizhou, Jinzhou, Jianzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Guozhou, Zhangzhou, Puzhou, Lingzhou, Zizhou, Rongzhou, Jianzhou, Jiazhou, Handan State, Yazhou, Lizhou, Zhangzhou, Maozhou, Yizhou, Tuzhou, Yanzhou, Chezhou, Xiangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, Songzhou, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Longzhou, Dangzhou, Xizhou, Gongzhou, Baozhou, Zhenzhou, Bazhou, Zhangzhou
Lingnan Road Governance Guangzhou (now Guangzhou, Guangdong) Guangzhou, Zhangzhou, Chaozhou, Xunzhou, Hezhou, Duanzhou, Xinzhou, Kangzhou, Fengzhou, Zhangzhou, Enzhou, Chunzhou, Gaozhou, Tengzhou, Yizhou, Douzhou, Qinzhou, Guizhou, Zhaozhou, Fuzhou, Zhangzhou, Mengzhou, Gongzhou, Zhangzhou, Yulin, Pingqin, Binzhou, Chengzhou, Xiuzhou, Xiangzhou, Liuzhou, Rongzhou, Zhangzhou, Guizhou, Dangzhou, Hengzhou, Tianzhou, Yanzhou, Shanzhou, Zhangzhou, Luozhou, Panzhou, Rongzhou, Diaozhou, Baizhou, Gengzhou, Qinzhou, Zhangzhou, Guzhou, Tangzhou, Wuyi, Yuezhou, Zhizhou, Aizhou, Fulu, Changzhou, Canzhou, Linzhou, Jingzhou, Fengzhou, Luzhou, Lianzhou, Leizhou, Cangzhou, Huanzhou, Dehua, Langqi, Yazhou, Zhangzhou, Qiongzhou, Zhenzhou, Wan'an

Political[edit]

Law[edit]

  • Tang Dynasty famous minister
    The Tang Dynasty law is divided into four types: law, order, style, and style. The law is the criminal code; the order refers to the specific provisions of the state on the various systems (such as the "house order"); the grid is a supplement to the law and the compilation of the ban; the law is the various administrative regulations (such as "Water Department"). "Tang Law" is based on the "King of the Emperor", the "Wu De Law", "Yuan Guan Law", "Yong Hui Law" three revisions. [114] It was formulated from the time of Tang Gaozu and was only completed when Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong’s Yonghui period also comprehensively explained the Tang Law, and wrote it as "Law Shu", and "Tang Law" is collectively called "Tang Law Shu Li", and later generations are also called "Tang Law Shudian". There are 12 articles in the Tang Dynasty, a total of 502 articles, and the penalty is five punishments. The Tang dynasty law fixed the crime of rebellion, rebellion, and other opposition to the imperial court as a "sinister evil" sin that could not be forgiven or redeemed, and played a guarantee role in the continuation of the court. There are also a series of regulations on the private ownership of land, which maintains the economic base. Aristocrats, rich people, and bureaucrats have been protected by certain unequal laws and can be commuted or exempted from punishment under the same laws as the Dalits. [29][115]

Official position[edit]

  • The Tang Dynasty used the official residence of the Sui Dynasty to formulate three provinces and six ministries. The main institutions are three provinces, six ministries, one Taiwan, five prisons, and nine monasteries. The three provinces are Zhongshu Province, the province under the door, and Shangshu Province. [31]
  • Central official system
Central Official System
Third Division / Three Public
Third division Taishi, Taifu, Taibao
Sangong Too, Situ, Sikong
Prime minister
Under the same book, the three products, the middle of the book, the lower chapter, the book, the middle, the book,
Three provinces / six provinces
Three provinces Zhongshu Province, Menxia Province, Shangshu Province
Six provinces Zhongshu Province, Menxia Province, Shangshu Province, Dianzhong Province, Secretary Province, and Ministry of Internal Affairs
Six
department Official position
Crotch Department of Departments, Department of Division, Department of Division, Department of Tests
Household department Department of Department, Department of Branch, Department of Finance, Department of Warehouse
Ritual department Ministry of Rites, Department of Headquarters, Department of Diet, Department of Guest and Customer
Ministry of War Department of Military Affairs, Department of Staff, Department of Driving, Department of Logistics
Criminal department Department of Criminal Department, Department of Justice, Division of Department, Department of Division
Ministry of Industry Ministry of Industry, Department of Weida, Department of Department of Agriculture, Department of Water
other organisations
department Official position
Yushitai Taiwan Institute, Temple House, Procuratorate
Five supervisors Guozijian, Shaofujian, will be a prisoner, military supervisor, Dushuijian
Nine temple Taichang Temple, Guanglu Temple, Weijing Temple, Zongzheng Temple, Taipu Temple, Dali Temple, Hongjun Temple, Si Nong Temple, Taifu Temple
Central court
department Official position
Nanxun Sixteen Left and right guards, left and right defenders, left and right Wuwei, left and right Weiwei, left and right leaders, left and right Jinwuwei, left and right guards, left and right
Beibei Ten Army Left and right Yu Linjun, left and right Longwu Army, left and right Shenwu Army, left and right God policy army, left and right Shenwei Army
  • (Source of form data [116] )
  • Local official system
  • Dojo observation
  • State (county): thorn history (Tai Shou); do not drive, long history, Sima; record, participate in the military;
  • Liu Cao: Sigong, Si Cang, Si Hu, Si Bing, Judicial, and Secretary.
  • County: County magistrate; county magistrate, main book; county magistrate, recorded, and history.
  • Township: old age; Wuliyi Township
  • Li: Li Zheng; Wu Bao Yi Li
  • Village: Village Zheng; a natural village is a village
  • Bao: Bao Chang; Five Neighbors
  • Neighbor: neighboring; four neighbors
  • Workshop: Fang Zheng. There is no village in the city, Fang Zhenghe is at the same level as the village.
  • (content source [116] )

Military[edit]

System[edit]

  • In the military, strong military power is a distinctive feature of the Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty unified China in the last years of the Sui Dynasty's warlords. When Tang Taizong and Tang Gaozong reigned, they attacked the East and West Turk, Xue Yantuo, Gaochang, Goguryeo, Baekje and other countries to collect their land as states and counties, and defeated Japanese reinforcements in the Battle of Baicunjiang. Also levied a squad, Tie Le, Shi Wei, Qidan and other ethnic groups for the Li Tang campaign. [117] At that time, the Tang Dynasty’s military system in Asia, economic and technological advantages were the basis of these achievements.
  • Tang Dynasty Sancai Warrior
    During the Tang dynasty, the influence of the Tang dynasty and the forces of the black and white food from the Arab, emerging, and Sunni Islams met in the Central Asian countries including the Zhaowu Jiuji, the Big Boss, and the Tuhuluo. The Tang Dynasty was completely contracted by the military in the history of Anshi, and the Chinese forces withdrew from Central Asia. The subsequent separatist towns have led to economic depression in North China.
  • Among the many famous generals of the Tang Dynasty, in addition to the Li Zemin of Tianceu, the generals of the Tang dynasty Xue Rengui, the Lingyange twenty-four heroes, Guo Ziyi, Li Wei and his son Li Wei, Gao Song and other Han commanders, the alien generals also Occupy an important position: more important are Hu Ren An Lushan, Shi Siming, Baekje people black teeth often, Goguryeo people Gao Xianzhi, Qidan people Li Guangkai, monks Li Huaiguang, Turkic 骑 施 施 哥 哥 、 、 、 、 、 、 、 、 、 、 、 Gu Huaien, Yan and A fell into the light. [118][119]
  • The destruction of the uniform system and the regulation of rents led to the change of the military system to the conscription system and the recruitment system. In the Anshi rebellion, the expansion of the temporary generation of military system can not resist the strength of the festival. The Tang Dynasty lost its position in the military: there were shackles in the town, and there were rumors, Tubo, and Nanzhao. However, in the late Tang Dynasty, the second year of the Tang army broke through the squatting section, and received a total of seven thousand accounts, killing nearly 90, 000 young people. In the middle of the arrow, the camel group sneaked away, and Wu Jie was killed. [118]

Official title[edit]

Official Grade General Name
One product Positive product Admiral
From a product 骠骑大军
Second product Positive two products Fuguo General
From the second product General of the town
Three products Positive three products Champion General, Huaihua General
Under three products General Huaihua
From three products General Yun Yun, General of General
From three products General of Germany
Four products Positive four products General Zhongwu
Under the four products Zhuang Wujun, Huaihua Zhonglang will
From four items General Xuanwei
From the four products General Ming Wei, Guide Zhonglang will
Five products Positive five products General Dingyuan
Under five products General Ning Yuan, Huai Hualang will
From five items General rider
From five products Guerrilla General, Guide Lang
Six products Positive six products Zhaowu Campus
Under six products Zhao Wu, deputy, Huaihua
From six products Zhenwei Campus
From six products Zhen Wei, deputy
Seven products Positive seven products Fruit to school
Under the seven products Deputy to the fruit, Huaihua Zhongwait
From seven products 翊麾校尉
From under seven products 翊麾 Deputy 尉, 归德中候
Eight products On eight products Xuanjie Campus
Under eight products Xuanjie Deputy, Huaihua Si Ge
From eight products Royal school
From eight products Yu Yu, deputy director
Nine products Positive nine products Ren Yong Campus
Under nine products Ren Yong, deputy, and Huaihua
From nine products Accompanying school
From nine products Accompanying deputy, deputy
  • (Source of form content [120] )

Economic[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

  • The agricultural production tools of the Tang Dynasty have made new progress. Qufu plow appears in
    Qufu plow
    Tang Dynasty. New irrigation tools, waterwheels and drum trucks have also emerged. In the early period of the Tang Dynasty, there were more than one hundred and sixty important water conservancy projects. Among them are the famous Yuliang Canal, Xiuyan Lake and Jinghu Lake. [118][119] During the Tianbao years, the area of cultivated land in the Tang Dynasty reached 8.5 million hectares. Food production has also increased. In the eight years of Tianbao, the official warehouse has saved 96 million stones. When Chang'an and Luoyang have the lowest rice prices, there are only 13 articles per bucket, and Qingzhou and Qizhou have only five articles per bucket. In the late Tang Dynasty, due to the southward migration of the population and land reclamation and overhaul, the food production in the South increased substantially. [121][122]

Handicraft[edit]

  • Zhaoling Liujun
    The Tang Dynasty handicraft industry division and private. The Ministry of Industry is one of the most important departments in charge of the official handicraft industry. The institutions directly managed include Shaofu, and will be supervised and supervised by the military. Shaofu Supervisor is in charge of exquisite handicrafts; he will be in charge of the construction of civil engineering; the military supervisor will be responsible for the construction of weapons. Under the supervision of the establishment of a department, the establishment of a workshop. There are also casting money supervision and smelting supervision. [123] The products of the official handicraft industry are generally not sold to the public and are only used by the royal family and the Tuen Mun. Workers are divided into artisans, criminals, official slaves, officials, and miscellaneous households. The private handicraft industry is less developed than the official handicraft industry. In the early period of the Tang Dynasty, the main handicrafts were textile, ceramics and mining and metallurgy. In the late Tang Dynasty, the southern handicraft industry made great progress, especially in the silk industry, shipbuilding industry, paper industry and tea industry. [123][124]
  • The handicraft industry of the Tang Dynasty has made great progress compared with the previous ones, and the business is also developed more than the former. The progress of the handicraft industry has played a beneficial role in the development of social productive forces. The development of commerce has stimulated the progress of the handicraft industry and strengthened the economic ties between the regions. [91]

Currency[edit]

  • Kaiyuan Tongbao
    After the establishment of the Tang Dynasty, it quickly introduced its own coinage policy system. In the fourth year of Wude (621), in July, "when the five yuan was spent, the money was opened, and the money was eight points. The weight was two and four, and the ten yuan was one or two. The one thousand texts weighed six pounds and four." [125][126] Established the legal currency status of the national coinage. At the same time, it inherits the tradition of using the 绢帛 as the currency during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, and implements the monetary system of “money and money” – money is copper, and 帛 is the general name for silk fabrics, including Jin, embroidery, pipa, Luo, 绢, 絁, 绮, 缣, 紬, etc., is actually a pluralistic monetary system that combines physical currency and metal currency. [127][128]
  • The Tang government constantly introduced laws and regulations to crack down on private casting and indiscriminate casting, and banned the use of bad money. However, due to the serious shortage of copper supply, the value of the currency has risen steadily, and private casting and mining have been profitable, so the results are not satisfactory. The implementation of the two-tax law is a major contradiction in the long-term development of social development. It is highlighted by the deteriorating problem of the so-called "money shortage". [127][129]
  • Cabinets and flying money appeared in the big cities of the Tang Dynasty. The counters are responsible for the payment of money and money, and customers who deposit money at the counter can send money with a book sticker (similar to a check). These all illustrate the prosperity of business in the middle of the Tang Dynasty. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, because of the chaos of the Yellow Nest and the war in the town, the number of households plummeted, and the scale of social economy never reached the level of Kaiyuan. [130]

Tax[edit]

  • In the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the two-tax law was implemented in 780 AD. The tax revenue of the year was 10.89 million and 8, 000, and the valley was 2.15 million. From 821 to 824, the average annual tax revenue was 351.512228 million, and the tax revenue in the late Tang Dynasty was reduced to 9.25 million baht in 853 years, of which the salt profit reached 2.78 million. As the Tang Dynasty intensified the pressure on salt merchants, it directly triggered the Huangchao uprising. [119]

Population[edit]

  • Due to the great chaos caused by Yang Guang, the population of the country has dropped sharply, and there were only over 2 million households in the Tang Dynasty. [131] After Li Tang unified the country, the household registration began to gradually recover. In the thirteenth year of Emperor Taizong’s reign, the number of households recovered to 3.04 million and the population reached 12.35 million. [132] And it has been attached to the population of more than 1.2 million [133] Tang Gaozong Yonghui three years (652 years) national households 3.8 million [134] The first year of Wu Zetian Shenlong (705) has 6.15 million households, with a total of 37.14 million people. [135] Tang Xuanzong Tianbao thirteen years (754 years), the number of households reached 96, 192, 254, the number of mouths reached 52, 880, 488, the peak of the official household statistics [136] . After the Anshi Rebellion, due to the separatist statistics and household registration statistics and management confusion, the number of household registrations did not meet the actual situation. According to scholars, the population of Guangde in the second year (764 years) was at least 46 million to 47 million, and the peak population of the late Tang Dynasty reached 60 million. about. [137][91]
  • Modern scholars generally believe that the peak of the Tang Dynasty's population appeared in the 13th to 14th year of Emperor Xuanzong's Tianbao (754-755), because scholars considered that tenant farmers, hidden households, slaves, soldiers, martyrdom, foreigners, etc. were not included. People with household registration statistics have different views on the peak population of the Tang Dynasty. [138][139] Du You, a historian of the Tang Dynasty, believed that the peak of the Tianbao period in the Tang Dynasty was 133.4 million. [8] Modern scholars Zhao Wenlin and Xie Shujun believe that Tianbao’s thirteenth year (754) peaked in the Tang Dynasty’s population of 63 million. [140] Modern scholar Xue Guodong believes that the peak population of the Tang Dynasty was about 1430-54 million in the 13th year of Emperor Xuanzong Tianbao (754), about 7475-80.5 million. [141] Modern scholar Wang Yumin believes that the peak of the Tang Dynasty Tianbao account is 80.5 million. [3] Ge Jianxiong believes that the peak population of the Tang Dynasty Tianbao fourteen years (755 years) is between 80-90 million [142] Modern scholar Chen Xuyu proposed that the peak population of the Tang Dynasty was 92.54 million; Japanese scholar Hiroshi Nino said that the Tang Dynasty had a population peak of 20 million and a population of 140 million. [137]
Tang Dynasty household registration statistics
Years Number Of Households Number Of Mouths Remarks
Late Tang Dynasty 2000000 From "The House of the Yuan Dynasty, the turtle, the volume of four hundred and eighty-six" [143] And "Tongdian·Volume Seven" [144]
Tang Taizong’s 13th Anniversary (639 years) 3041871 12351681 According to the statistics of Zhuzhou County Hukou of the Old Tang Book Geography
Tang Gaozong Yonghui three years (652 years) 3800000 - From "Tang Hui Yao·Volume Eighty-four" [134]
The first year of Wusong Shenlong (705 years) 6156141 37140000 From "Old Tang Book, Volume Eighty-eight" [135]
Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, fourteen years of the Kaiyuan (726) 7069565 41419712 From "The Old Tang Book, The Eighth" [145] And "Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume 213" [146]
Tang Xuanzong Kaiyuan 20 years (732 years) 7861236 45431265 From "The Old Tang Book, The Eighth" [147] And "Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume 213" [148]
Tang Xuanzong Kaiyuan twenty-eight years (740 years) 8412871 48143609 From "Old Tang Book, Volume 38" [149]
The first year of Emperor Xuanzong Tianbao (742) 8525763 48909800 From "The Old Tang Book, The Ninth Book" [150]
Tang Xuanzong Tianbao eleven years (752 years) 8973634 59975543 According to the statistics of the number of households in Zhuzhou County of the New Tang Book Geography
Tang Xuanzong Tianbao thirteen years (754 years) 19619254
29069154
39187548
152880488
252880488
352881280
No. 1 data comes from "The Old Tang Book, Ji Ji Jiu" [136]
No. 2 data comes from Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume 217 [151]
The No. 3 data is based on the statistics of the old Tang Shu Xuanzong Ji Tianbao thirteen classes and non-class accounts.
Tang Xuanzong Tianbao 14 years (755 years) 8914790 52919390 From "Tong Dian·Food Seven" [152]
Tang Suzong to the first year of the year (756 years) 8018710 - From "Tang Hui Yao·Volume Eighty-four" [153] And "The House of the Yuan turtles, the volume of four hundred and eighty-six" [154]
Tang Suzong Yuanyuan three years (760 years) 1933134 16990386 From "Tong Dian·Food Seven" [155]
The second year of Zong Guangde in the Tang Dynasty (764 years) 2933125 - From "Tang Hui Yao·Volume Eighty-four" [156]
Tang Dezong's first year of Jianzhong (780 years) 3855076 - From "Tang Hui Yao·Volume Eighty-four" [157]
Tang Xianzong Yuan and 15 years (820 years) 2375400 15760000 From the Old Tang Book, the 16th [158]
Tang Wenzong was founded four years (839 years) 4996752 - From "Tang Hui Yao·Volume Eighty-four" [159]
Tang Wuzong Huichang Five Years (844 years) 4955151 - From "New Tang Book, Volume 52" [160]
Sources : "Sui Shu", "Old Tang Book", "New Tang Book", "General Code", "Tang Hui Yao", "Book House Yuan Turtle", "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" and so on.

Culture[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • The first champion, the ternary and the first in Chinese history were born in the Tang Dynasty, the grandson of Sun Poga in 622 AD (one in 651, Yan Kangcheng), and the ternary champion in 781.
  • Famous writer and poet of the Tang Dynasty
    The most remarkable literary achievements of the Tang Dynasty can be described as Tang poetry. Since Chen Ziang and the "four great masters of the Tang Dynasty", the famous poets of the Tang Dynasty have emerged in an endless stream. Li Bai, Du Fu, Cen Shen, Wang Wei in the Tang Dynasty, Li He and Han Yu in the Tang Dynasty. Bai Juyi, Li Shangyin and Du Mu in the late Tang Dynasty were among several representative poets. Their poetry styles vary from the rich imagination of the mythological world to the detailed description of real life. There are both provocative poems and poems, as well as a profound and profound "history of poetry", as well as fresh and refined pastoral poetry. These poems together constitute an outstanding representative of ancient Chinese literature. Although there are still outstanding poets in the later generations of Song, Ming and Qing, the overall level of legal poetry and ancient poetry is not as good as that of the Tang Dynasty, making Tang poetry an insurmountable peak of Chinese ancient poetry. The largest cities in the "Full Tang Poetry" are Luoyang, Chang'an and Jinling. [161][162]
  • The Tang Dynasty's cultural, institutional, and social characteristics almost all inherited the Sui Dynasty. The Li Jiahuang of the Tang Dynasty and the Yang Family of the Sui Dynasty had more relatives. The Tang Dynasty was to some extent the extension of the Sui Dynasty. The family often merged it with the Sui Dynasty into a "Sui and Tang Dynasties".
  • (Atlas source [163] )

Art[edit]

  • Practice map
    Due to the absorption of the characteristics of the Western Regions and the religious colors, Zhang Shu's "The Lady of the Suiguo Tour" is very different from the dynasties. In the early Tang Dynasty, the 阎立本, 阎立德兄弟s were good at painting characters. Wu Daozi has the title of “painting holy”. He is also good at characters and landscapes, and absorbs the techniques of the Western Region School. The picture is rich in three-dimensional sense, and there is a saying that “Wu belt is the wind”. [164][165] Zhang Wei and Zhou Wei are mainly painting the maids, and the representative works include "捣 图 图 图", "Lady of the Suiguo Lady" and "The Lady of the Flower". The poet Wang Wei is good at ink landscape painting, and Su Shi called him "there is poetry in the painting." [166]
  • The murals of the Tang Dynasty were particularly developed. The Mogao Grottoes and the tomb murals are handed down to the world. The carving art of the Tang Dynasty is also outstanding. The Dunhuang, Longmen, Maijishan and Binglingsi caves all entered the prime of the Tang Dynasty. The Lushen Buddha in Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang and the Leshan Giant Buddha in Sichuan are amazing. Zhaoling Liujun and the tombs of the three colored pottery are very beautiful. Among them, the sculptor Yang Huizhi is known as the plastic saint. [167]

Calligraphy[edit]

  • Tang Dynasty calligraphy
    During the Tang Dynasty, calligraphers came forth in large numbers. Ouyang Xun and Yu Shinan are famous calligraphers of the early Tang Dynasty. Ouyang Xun’s essays are strictly written, and his masterpiece is Jiucheng Gongquan. 虞世南楷书 font is round. Yan Zhenqing and Liu Gongquan are famous calligraphers of the Tang Dynasty. Yan Zhenqing's essay is thick with a pen, contains bones and bones, and is vigorous and free. His masterpieces include "Tuobao Tower Monument" and "Yan's Family Temple Monument"; Liu Gongquan's font is Jin Jian, and his masterpiece has "Mysterious Tower Monument", and the world is called Yan Liu Er. People's calligraphy is "Yanjin Liugu". Zhang Xu and Huai Su are the cursives of the Tang Dynasty. [168][169]

Religion[edit]

  • Xuanzang
    The religious policies in the early Tang Dynasty were more tolerant, and the two traditional Chinese religions, Taoism and Buddhism, had great development. The Tang dynasty used Taoism as the state religion, and the princes and nobles were proud of the Taoist priests, and they used the Taoist classics such as Laozi, Zhuangzi, Wenzi and Liezi to open scholars. In the early period of the translation of the Buddhist classics in the early Tang Dynasty, in order to conform to the national conditions of the Tang Dynasty, a large number of Taoist terminology, a large number of Buddhist classics and the gradual maturity of the Chinese monks' own ideology made Chinese Buddhism develop steadily during this period. Most of the major denominations formed or matured during this period. Other religions such as Islam, Nestorianism (Christian Nestorian) and martyrdom were also introduced to China with international exchanges. Tang Wuzong adopted a high-pressure policy on Buddhism. The history called Huichang to destroy the Buddha, which made the other Buddhist sects, apart from a few sects, such as Zen. [162]

Technology[edit]

  • The famous astronomer and his party measured the length of the meridian for the first time in the world; the medicine king Sun Sizhen’s "Qian Jin Fang" is a rare medical book; in 868, the printing of China's "Diamond Sutra" is the earliest known in the world. Engraving printing. China's papermaking, textile and other technologies have spread to the West Asia and Europe through the Arab region. [170]

Diplomatic[edit]

  • The main road map of the Tang Dynasty's foreign exchanges
    The Tang Dynasty was economically and socially developed, and its culture was also in the leading position in the world. [171] Cultural exchanges with many countries around the world are very frequent. North Korea and Japan sent many international students to study in Chang'an and Luoyang. The friendly exchanges between the Tang Dynasty and the Arab region, emeralds, peppers, and Islam were introduced to China. [162][172]

Turk and Tuyu[edit]

  • Turkic
    The East Turkistan attacked the Central Plains all the year round. In the early Tang Dynasty, the regimes of the North were divided into two groups. Gaozu Taizong actively resisted. In the third year of 贞 (3), Li Jing and Li Jier were sent to separate the road. The following year, they surrendered to East Turkistan, and Khan Khan surrendered Khan, Khan Khan Khan was captured, and East Turkistan Khan The country is dead. A large number of Turks moved to the territory of the Tang Dynasty, and Taizong will be placed in the Lingwu to Youzhou area and set up under the jurisdiction of the government. The demise and retreat of the East Turkistan shook the Western Turks and the Western countries, and some small countries in the Western Regions changed their minds to the Tang Dynasty, praising the Tang Taizong as "Tian Khan." West Turkistan arrived in Persia, north and Shule, and controlled the Silk Road. In 640, Tang captured Gaochang City (south of Turpan, Xinjiang) and set up Anxi Dufu. In 647, Pingding was settled. In 648, the turtle was settled. Anxi Dufu moved to Kucha, and he was in charge of the four towns of Yu, Gaochang, Qionglai and Kucha. In the second year of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty (AD 657), Su Dingfang and Xiao Yuye defeated the West. The West Turkistan finally fell under the attack of the Tang army several times, that is, the war between Tang and Turkic. The Western Region has thus become the sphere of influence of the Tang Dynasty, during which Tang Jun began to interact with another great empire at that time. However, with the transfer of time, Tianbao ten years (751 years), the Tang Dynasty failed in the battle with the Aussie dynasty in the Great Food Kingdom. After the Anshi Rebellion, the Tang Dynasty forces basically withdrew from Central Asia. [173]
  • Anxi Dufu and Beiting Dufu
    After the fall of the East Turke, the remarks of persuasion and perseverance were controlled by Xue Yantuo. In 646, Tang United returned to defeat Xue Yantuo. In the second year of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty (682 years), A Shi Na Gu Lu was called Khan in the Mongolian Plateau, and the Eastern Turkistan reinstated the country (historically known as the Turkic). After the Khitan people also voted for the Turks and made a fuss, they set up their teeth in the Yinshan Mountain. A band. After the Turkic invasion of the northern frontiers, it has been plaguing Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian tried to improve the relationship between the Turks and the Khitan through the canonization and pro-habitation, but it has not been successful. [174] It was not until the Tang Emperor Xuanzong Tianbao three years (744 years) that the Tang and the returning coalition forces collapsed and returned to the founding of the country. In the five years of the Yuan Dynasty (790), the Tang Dynasty renamed it back. Looking back and the relationship with the Tang Dynasty has always been relatively good, but during the Anshi Rebellion, he took the opportunity to extort the Tang Dynasty, and joined the Tang army to break into Luoyang City and robbed Luoyang. In the middle of the ninth century, Muse broke back and Muse enlisted in the Tang Dynasty. Part of the return to the west moved, a large number of back to the south. The relocation of the South moved to the conflict with the Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty, Zhang Zhongwu, Liu Wei, Shi Xiong and so on, broke back several times, killing more than 100, 000 returning monks, and also captured a large number of Hui Hou Wang nobles. [175][176] The return of Xiqian arrived in Ganzhou (Ganzhou Huishun), Xizhou (Gaochang Huishun), Kucha (Guizi Hui), and Lianling into Gelulu (Khan Dynasty). [174][177]
  • Tuyuhun was the branch of Murong Xianbei, and moved to the northeastern end of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Wuhu and Sixteenth countries. It was established in 329, using the Jin system, and has been swaying in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the Southern Dynasties and the Five Hu States due to special geographical relations. When the Northwest Powers are between. He was occupied by the Sui Army in the five years of the great cause of the 隋 (609 years), and he reinstated in the late War. Tuyuhun was in the special geography between the two forces of Tubo and Tang, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with Tubo. In the early years, Murong Fuyun adopted the foreign policy of fraternalism. Tang Taizong’s several summons failed to succeed. In 634, he began to send troops to the west. In the following year, general Li Jing defeated Tu Guzhen, and the pro-Tang’s Murong Shun succeeded to the Tang Dynasty. After the death, the son Murong Nuo was succeeded to the throne, and Tang sent the Princess Honghua and his relatives. In 663, Tubo ruined the valley, and the Nobels moved to Tangzhou Lezhou (now Ningxia Zhongning). [178]

Japan[edit]

  • The Republic of China changed its name to Japan during the Wu Zhou period and was close to the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xiaode promoted innovation, followed the Tang system and moved toward centralization. Introduce the equalization system and the renting system, implement the household registration and accounting system, refer to the "Tang Ling" to write the "Da Bao Ling" code, follow the Changan City layout plan Ping An, Pingcheng Second Beijing. Japan has dispatched dozens of ambassadors to the Tang dynasty. Each time the mission has reached hundreds of people, in addition to the ambassadors and sailors, there are also international students, scholars, doctors, students, students, students, students, students, and workers. Life and so on. [179] The famous Japanese people who came to Tang Dynasty had international students Ji Beizhen and Abe Zhongma Lu and the monks Konghai and Yuanren. Kong Hai is the author of "The Mirror of the Secrets" and the first Japanese vocabulary dictionary "The Name of the Vientiane". Yuan Ren sought the Dharma and traveled through various counties in the Tang Dynasty, bringing back a large number of Buddhist texts and instruments in Japan. Baekje geisha tastes the dance of Jingchu in the Tang Dynasty to Japan, called Wu Yule. Japanese hiragana and katakana have also evolved from the cursive and scriptures of China. [180] The Jianzheng monk was invited by the Japanese monks to return to Japan six times and finally succeeded. He brought the Buddhist scriptures and promoted the spread of Chinese culture to Japan and the prosperity of Buddhism in Japan.

Xue Yantuo[edit]

  • In the early period of the Zhenguan period, the Tang Dynasty had formed an alliance with Xue Yantuo to deal with the powerful East Turkistan Khanate. In 630, Tang defeated the East Turkistan. After the failure of the East Turkistan, Xue Yantuo’s Zhenzhu Khan Yi Man took over the homeland of Dongtu. Xue Yantuo surrendered to Tang and secretly expanded his power. In 639, Emperor Taizong tried to restore the East Turkistan, and supported the Khan A Shinasimo to counter the rise of Xue Yantuo. Xue Yantuo and the newly restored East Turkistan carried out many wars to prevent the Tang Dynasty from competing. In order to prevent Xue Yantuo from defeating the East Turkistan, Tang will Li Shiji defeated Xue Yantuo in 641. [181]
  • In 644, when the Sui and Tang Dynasties conquered Goguryeo, the Xue Yantuo forces launched a new round of offensives, defeating the East Turkistan, forcing Ashina Simo to escape to the Central Plains. Subsequently, Goguryeo sought Xue Yantuo's assistance, but Yi Man hoped to avoid direct fighting with the Tang Dynasty. In 645, after the death of Yi Man, his son Duo Khan began to fight with the Tang army. In 646, after Tang Jun counterattacked and defeated the bombardment, Xue Yantuo’s vassal returned to the army and killed him. The cousin of the cousin, Yi Te, lost Khan, and surrendered to the Tang army. Xue Yantuo perished. [181]

Baekje[edit]

  • In 660 years, the Battle of Tang Baekje between Baekje and the Tang Dynasty and Silla occurred. The reason is that Baekje and Goguryeo have hindered the traffic and tribute issues of Silla and Tang Dynasty. Tang Gaozong repeatedly threatened to intimidate Baekje without any result. Under the repeated request of Silla, the Tang Dynasty sent Zuo Dingwei General Su Dingfang to be the general manager of Shenqiu Road, and led the left defending general Liu Boxing and other water and land to fight against Baekje. Xinluo Wulie Wang Jinchunqiu was the general manager of the Yiyi Road, and Su Dingfang led the troops to cross the sea from Chengshan. Baekje was defending the enemy against the Xiongjin River. Su Dingfang attacked and the Baiji army killed thousands of people. Su Dingfang went hand in hand and went straight to his capital. In the 20th miles outside the city, Baekje pours the country into battle, the Tang army wins, kills the Baiji army 10, 000 people, and the Tang army enters the foreign country. At the same time, Silla General Kim Jong-soo triumphed over the Baekje Grand Master in Huangshan, Baiji Yici Wang and Prince Fu Yulong fled into the north, Su Dingfang entered the city, and Yi Ci’s second son Fu Yutai became the king. Fuyu Longzi Fuyu Wensi said: "The king and the prince are all there, and the uncles are holding the soldiers from the king. If they can do it, they will be Tang soldiers. My father and son will not be fully shackled." Leading the city around the city, many people follow, Fu Yutai can't stop. Su Dingfang ordered the sergeant to climb the banner of the city, and Fu Yutai forced him to open the door and drop the Tang. Then Fu Yu Yi Ci, Fu Yulong and Zhucheng Lord surrendered. [182][183]

Goguryeo[edit]

  • Tang Taizong pro-Korean passes through the map
    After the Sui Dynasty attacked Goguryeo’s fiasco, the country’s people changed and died. Goguryeo is still hostile to the successive Chinese Kings in the Tang Dynasty. In 631, Goguryeo began to build the Great Wall in Liaodong to prevent the Tang Dynasty's attack and alliance with Turks. The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Tang Taizong Li Shimin, used the concept of "Liaodong" according to Goguryeo (the "Liaodong" concept at that time was similar to the scope of the four counties of the Han Dynasty, that is, the area east of the Liaohe River in Northeast China and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula) As "the old China has", nowadays "the nine singers are set, this is the only one", determined to take the conquest of Goguryeo as the last part of the Chinese unification war, but Tang’s attack on Goguryeo was initially unsuccessful, in numerous battles. The main points of the strategy are lost. After defeating Goguryeo’s allies, Tang and the Silla Union. [184][185]
  • After Tang Ping's Goguryeo, he was divided into Jiudu Dufu, 42 counties, and 100 counties. He set up the Dongdu Dufu in Pyongyang to appoint the right Weiwei general, Xue Rengui, to check the school Anton Dong. Leading 20, 000 soldiers to defend their land, trying to control the Korean Peninsula, triggered the war between Silla and the Tang Dynasty. Silla finally controlled the area south of the Datong River on the Korean Peninsula. To the north of the Datong River is occupied by Tang and Bohai. [185]

Big food[edit]

  • In 715, due to the strength of the national power, the advantage in the Western Region began to tilt toward the Tang Dynasty. The expansion of Tubo in the Western Region was continuously defeated, and even the Arab Empire could not be the cheapest. First, in the third year of Kaiyuan (715 years), Tubo and the big food jointly established Adarda as the king, and sent troops to attack the country of the Tang Dynasty. Supervising the imperial censor Zhang Xiaoxuan and Anxi both guarded Lu Xiu's rate of more than 10, 000 soldiers, defeated the Tubo Food Alliance, and won the important Asian country of Central Asia, Wei Zhen Western Region. [186][187]
  • Then in the five years of Kaiyuan (717), the spurs and the Tubo and the big food attacked the four towns, and were defeated again by the Tang Dynasty. [186]
  • After the defeat of Arab war against China in the three years of Kaiyuan and Kaiyuan, the Arabs continued to expand to Central Asia. Due to the great geographical advantage, and because of the large-scale war between the Tang and Qing dynasties in Qinghai and Tubo, the influence of the Arabs was slowly reflected. The influence of the military and religion made the Tang Dynasty originally a country in the Western Region. The countries of the Kite have fallen to the Arab side. In order to counter the Arab expansion in the Western Regions, the Tang Dynasty used the spurs to give Arabia a rather heavy blow. [186]
  • In the sixth year of Kaiyuan (718), Galach was commanded by the Northern Army to win the battle in the north of the river. He was prepared to invade Chinese territory, but he was surrounded by Turks and paid ransom to be saved. [186]
  • In the eleventh year of Kaiyuan (723 years), Huo Shanshan had easily replaced Muslin, and at the beginning of his resignation, he immediately attacked the East and pulled out the Khan. [186]
  • In the 12th year of Kaiyuan (724), Ye Qide II, Xishamu succeeded as Harry, and sent Muslims to attack the East and Khan, and they were all thirsty for the city, and the thirsty water battle broke out. The defeat was defeated, and the defender was killed in battle. As a result, Kang and Shi Zhuguo, who had already reneged on the big food, returned to Tang. This setback caused the Arab expansion to the east to be suspended for about 50 years. [186]
    Schematic diagram of the battle between the Tang Dynasty and the Arab Empire
  • After Gao Xianzhi wiped out the stone country, China’s power in Central Asia has recovered. In order to counter the attack of Gao Xianzhi, all the countries in the Arab Union River are ready to fight back. Gao Xianzhi arrived in the Arab-controlled 怛 斯 七 in July and began siege.怛 斯 斯 斯. As the Arabs were already preparing for the attack on the four towns of Anxi, immediately after receiving the news of Gao Xianzhi's attack, more than 100, 000 troops were dispatched to the city of Yuluo. The two sides started on the banks of the river, today's Jiangbul. A decisive battle. Khorasan is in chaos, and Arabs are busy with chaos. They are already powerless for distant China. However, due to the chaos of Anshi, the Chinese side can only give up the competition between Central Asia and Arabia. [186]

Tibet[edit]

  • In 641, Tang Taizong sent Li Daozong to escort Princess Wencheng to Tubo, and married Zanpu Songzan Gambo. [188] Later, Princess Jincheng married the Zanpu Chi Dezuzan and formed an alliance. Brought the advanced culture of the Tang Dynasty to Tubo. In 822, the Tang and Tibet confederations demarcated the borders and inviolated each other. The Tang and Tibet dynasties were also preserved in the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa. In 794, the Tang Dynasty and Nanxun met in the Cangshan Mountain, and the two sides established a good relationship. [188][171]
Tang Dynasty Tubo War Table
Time/year Battle location Cause Tang Dynasty Force Tubo forces Result
638 Songzhou Tubo attacked Qinghai Tuyuhun, Party, Bailan, etc. 50000 200, 000 Tang Jun’s surprise attack won, and Tubo sent him to plead guilty, and he withdrew from Qinghai Tuyu, Party, and Bai Lanqi. Tang Fan and pro
670 Dafeichuan The Tubo army invaded and captured the four towns of Anxi 50000 400000 Tubo won, and then both sides repeatedly competed
675 Anxi Town Fight for the four towns of Anxi - - The Tang Dynasty won, and the four towns of Anxi were controlled by the Tang Dynasty.
678 Qinghai Lake Tang Dynasty attacked Tubo 180, 000 - Tang Jun withdrew after defeat in Qinghai Lake
681 Liang Feichuan Tubo on the praise of the police - - The black teeth of the Tang Dynasty often defeated the Tubo Army, and the Tubo was deeply feared.
694 Cold Spring and Daling Tubo commented on the blade, and the Turkic Khan - 60000 Tang Jun broke the Tubo theory, praised the Turkic Khan
696 Suluhan Mountain Tubo attacked Linyi and retreated to lead the Tang army to the plateau of Suluhan - - Tang Jun defeated Qinling
700 Hongyuan Valley Tang Youjun, the ambassador of the Song Dynasty, and the battle in Hongyuan Valley - - Tang Jun won both games. In 702, Tubo Qiuhe
714 Dalai Valley Tubo Yudayan invasion Linyi - 100, 000 Tang Jun was a big winner, and the Tubo army was killed by tens of thousands of people.
717 Nine songs Right-handedness makes Guo Zhiyun attack Tubo - - Tang Jun broke the Tubo. In 718, Tubo summed
722 Small bell Tubo attacking small war Four thousand - In the Tang Dynasty, Zhang Sili won and won tens of thousands of Tubo Army.
728 Thirsty Valley, Damon City Zhang Shouqi, Xiao Yu, Zhang Zhongliang, several times, Tubo - - After several times, the Tubo army was defeated, and the Tubo defeated the troops and fled into the mountains.
729 Qinghai Zhang Shouqi attacked Tubo - - Zhang Shou slammed the Tutong Datong army and broke it.
729 Qinghai Li Wei attacked Tubo - - Li Wei captured the Shibao City, and the Tang Dynasty River and the Zhujun Army were able to play freely and expand the land for more than a thousand miles. In 730, Tubo summed
738 Qinghai Xiao Yu, Du Hope, Wang Zhongyu attacked Tubo - - Tang Dynasty victory
742 Dalingjun The right-handedness makes Huangfu only attack the Tubo - 30, 000 Tang Jun triumphantly defeated the Daling Army of Tubo and captured 5, 000 grades.
742 Qinghai The Hexi Festival makes Wang Hao and others attack the Tubo - - Great victory, breaking the Tubo fishing sea and the game and other military. Wang Dunde’s son, Tuzi Zanpu’s son, is a branch.
746 Qinghai, stone Wang Zhongyu led the army to fight with Tubo many times. - - After several battles, they all won the battle, and they settled the Tuyu, and captured all of them.
747 Bitter sea, stone army Tang Dynasty, Ge Shuhan, Tubo - - The battle of bitter and pulling the sea, even breaking the three-way Tubo army, is invincible. The battle of the stone army, the total of five thousand Tubo cavalry.
748 Qinghai Goshuhan attacked Tubo - - Zhuying Longcheng, Tubo screen does not dare to approach Qinghai
750 Western Region In the Tang Dynasty, Gao Xianzhi led the army to break down Sabie, Yanshi, Suqi Shi, etc. - - Gao Xianzhi enters the pilgrimage to the pilgrimage, riding the Khan, the Tubo chief, the priest, etc.
753 Qinghai Hongji, Damumen and other cities Goshen - - Great victory, occupying the land of Jiuqu (now southeast of Qinghai Province)
753 Western Bodhisattva Feng Changqing’s rate of military attack - - Tang Jun broke the big bodhisattva attached to Tubo
755-763 Right-wing states The civil strife broke out in the Tang Dynasty, the chaos of Anshi - - Tubo Sui and Tang dynasty internal chaos
763 Changan In the Tang Dynasty, the Tang Jun Fangjun will put the Tudong into the east due to the contradiction with the Tang court. - 200, 000 Guo Ziyi Qin Wang, Tubo exited Changan according to Changan for 15 days
765 Lingtai Xiyuan Tubo attack - 100, 000 The Tang Jun jointly returned to the country, winning the Tubo, smashing 50, 000, and tens of thousands of people.
773 Pan Yuan Tubo attack - - Tang Jun broke the Tubo army and captured tens of thousands of prisoners
776 Jiannan The Jiannan Festival made Cui Ning lead the army against the Tubo spit and the party and other coalition forces. - More than 200, 000 Tang Junsheng, beheading 10, 000
777 Jiannan Cui Ning led the army and the Tubo army - More than ten thousand people Tang Junsheng, beheading more than eight thousand levels
779 Tubo and Nanxun joined forces to fight 100, 000 attacks - 100, 000 Tang Jun Li Wei and other big wins, Tubo Nanxun lost nearly 100, 000 troops
786 Zhangzhou Tubo still praised attacking Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou and Zhangzhou - - Tang Lijun defeated the Tubo army and conquered the sand
789 Taitung Valley The War of the Tang Dynasty and the Tubo - - Tang Jun smashed the Tubo army and killed his large terracotta warriors, so that the Tubo army’s cliffs and the dead were innumerable.
792 Victoria Wei Wei attacked Victoria - - Captured the opinion of the Tubo generals
793 Xishan Wei Wei attacked Tubo - - Break the people of Tubo. Many tribes in the former vassal of Tubo were attached to the Tang Dynasty. [189]
793 Xiazhou - - - The Tang Dynasty regained counties and counties such as Yanzhou and Xiazhou
801 Yazhou Wei Wei sent troops to break Tubo in Yazhou. Wei Wei repeatedly broke Tubo and fought for thousands of miles. - - Tang Junsheng, the city of Qiuqiu, the military town of five, the burning of a hundred and fifty, the first 10, 000-level dagger, the capture of six thousand, down three thousand
802 Victoria The Tang Dynasty Wei Wei attacked Victoria, and the Tubo army sent rescue - 100, 000 Tang Jun’s victory, the Tubo Army’s death by two-thirds, the Tubo’s appearance and the East’s five-way festival
819 Yanzhou Tubo attacking Yanzhou - One hundred and fifty thousand Tang Junsheng, Shi Jingfeng led the army to attack behind the Tubo army, breaking the Tubo army, killing the invincible
849 - Tubo civil strife - - Tang received Qin, Anle, and the original 3 states.
849 - The Han dynasty Zhang Yichao took the melon, Iraq, Iraq, Gan, Su, Lan, Yi, He, Sui, and other states, and attached it to the Tang Dynasty. The Tubo Shang Yan heart rate department and the rivers of Hezhou, Zhangzhou and Tuobei surrendered to the Tang Dynasty.
866 Tuoba Huaiguang killed Tubo on the fear of heat, and passed the first Beijing. The ministry went to Qinzhou, and the heart was broken, and the song was moved to Lingnan. Tubo is declining, and Zanpu is not known to Hu Junchen.
A few years later, from the eastern part of Tubo, civilians and slaves who had spread to the whole of Tibet were erupted. The Tubo Kingdom was destroyed.
  • Tang and Tubo have been fighting for more than 200 years: the Song Dynasty of Songzhou defeated the Tubo Army, Tubo withdrew from its defeated party items, Bai Lanqi, Qinghai Tuyuhun, etc. The Tang Dynasty long-term control of Hexi and right, and gradually expanded to the Western Region (Anbei Court Gaozong Wu Zetian went to the Emperor of the Tang Dynasty during the Tang Dynasty. The Tubo Qinling won several battles and occupied the western part of Qinghai. However, the struggle for Anxi failed. Qinling asked Tang to withdraw from Anxi, and he was refused and helpless. Tang long-term control of Hexi The northwest court, Wang Hao, Li Wei, Zhang Sili, Wang Zhongyu, Ge Shuhan, Gao Xianzhi, etc. have repeatedly won the Tubo army, or killed tens of thousands of enemies, or opened up the territory, pushing the front line to the west of Qinghai Lake in the east, in the northwest will Tubo drove out the big and big, and suppressed Tubo from the east to the northwest. Later, the chaos of Anshi, the chaos of Zhu Xi, the disaster of the town, and so on, Tang repeatedly infighed himself and severely weakened himself. Tubo took the opportunity to win some, but Cui Ning and Li Wei of the Tang Dynasty Wei Wei and Shi Jingfeng repeatedly devastated the Tubo Army. In the middle of the ninth century, the Tang courts occupied the Qin, Yuan, Anle, Wei, Fu, He, and Yi states. Zhang Tanchao occupied Hexi and Wuyou, and was attached to the Tang Dynasty. Soon after, the Tubo Kingdom Neiwaijiaokun first perished. [190]

Imperial lineage[edit]

Emperor portraits
Tang Gaozu Li Yuan
Tang Taizong Li Shimin
Tang Gaozong Li Zhi
Tang Zhongzong Li Xian
Tang Ruizong Li Dan
Then the Emperor of Heaven, Wu Zetian (Wuhan)
Tang Zhongzong Li Xian
Tang Xuanzong Li Longji
Tang Suzong Li Heng
Tang Dynasty Zong Li Yu
Tang Dezong Li Shi
Tang Shunzong Li Wei
Tang Xianzong Li Chun
Tang Muzong Li Heng
Tang Jingzong Li Zhan
Tang Wenzong Li Ang
Tang Wuzong Li Yan
Tang Xuanzong Li Wei
Tang Yizong Li Wei
Tang Yizong Li Wei
Tang Zhaozong Li Wei
Tang Jingzong Li Wei
Tang Dynasty Emperor's Lineage Table
Temple Number Nickname Name Years In Place Mausoleum Year Number
Gaozu Emperor Li Yuan 618-626 Xianling Wude 618-626
Taizong Wenwu Dasheng Daguang Xiao Emperor Li Shimin 627-649 Zhaoling 627 627-649
Gao Zong Emperor of the Emperor Li Zhi 650-683 Fuling Yonghui 650-655
Xianqing 656-661
Longjing 661-663
Linde 664-665
乾封666-668
General Chapter 668-670
Xianheng 670-674
Shangyuan 674-676
Yifeng 676-679
Revealing 679-680 years
Yonglong 680-681
Opening 681-682
Everlasting 682-683
Hongdao 683
Zhongzong
(deprecated)
Yamato Daisuke, the great emperor Li Xian 684 Dingling 嗣圣684年
Ruizong
(Zen)
Xuanzhen Dasheng Daxing Xiao Emperor Li Dan 684-690 Bridge Civilization 684
Guangzhai 684
Vertical arch 685-688
Yongchang 689
At the beginning of 690 years
Wu Zhou 690-705
The Emperor of Heaven The Emperor of Heaven Monk 690-705 Fuling Tianzhi 690-692
Ruyi 692
Longevity 692-694
Extended 694 years
1987
Long live the celestial 695-696
Long lived in 1976
Long live the sky 696-697 years
Shen Gong 697
Holy calendar 698-700
Long time 700 years
Dazu 701 years
Chang'an 701-705
Li Tang Restoration 705-907
Zhongzong
(restoration)
Yamato Daisuke, the great emperor Li Xian 705-710 Dingling Shenlong 705-707
Jinglong 707-710
Gong Zong Emperor Li Zhongmao 710 Tang Long 710
Ruizong
(restoration)
Xuanzhen Dasheng Daxing Xiao Emperor Li Dan 710-712 Bridge Jingyun 710-711
Tai Chi 712
Yanhe 712 years
Xuanzong To the Da Da Da Ming Ming Emperor Li Longji 712-756 Tailing Congenital 712-713
Kaiyuan 713-741
Tianbao 742-756
Suzong Civilized Wude Dashengda Xuan Xiao Emperor Li Heng 756-762 Jianling Deutsche 756-758
758 758-760
Shangyuan 760-761
Daizong Ruiwen Xiaowu Emperor Li Yu 762-779 Yuanling Baoying 762-763
Guangde 763-764
Yongtai 765-766
Calendar 766-779
Dezong Emperor Wu of the Emperor Wu Li Shi 780-805 Chongling Jianzhong 780-783
Xingyuan 784
Qianyuan 785-805
Shunzong To the Emperor of the Great Li Wei 805 Fengling Yongzheng 805 years
Xianzong Emperor Wu of the Holy Spirit Li Chun 806-820 Jingling Yuan and 806-820
Mu Zong Rui Shengwen Hui Emperor Li Heng 821-824 Guangling Changqing 821-824
Jingzong Emperor Ruiwu Zhaoxiao Li Zhan 824-826 Zhuang Ling Baoli 824-826
Wenzong Yuan Shengzhao Xian Xiao Emperor Li Ang 826-840 Zhang Ling Bao Li 826
Yamato 827-835
Opened into 836-840
Wu Zong To the Zhaoxiu Emperor Li Yan 840-846 Tomb Huichang 841-846
Xuanzong Emperor Shengwu of Wenwu Li Wei 846-859 Fuling Dazhong 847-859
Yuzong Zhao Sheng Gong Hui Xiao Emperor Li Wei 859-873 Simple tomb Dazhong 859
Xiantong 860-873
Yuzong Hui Sheng Gong Ding Emperor Li Wei 873-888 Jingling Xiantong 873-874
874 874-879
Guangming 880-881 and 881-885
Guangqi 885-888
Wende 888
Zhaozong Emperor of the Holy Land Li Wei 888-904 Heling Long Ji 889
Dashun 890-891
Jingfu 892-893
Ganning 894-898
Gwanghwa 898-901
Tianfu 901-904
God bless 904
Jingzong Zhao Xuan Guanglie Xiao Emperor Li Wei 904-907 Wenling God bless 904-907

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  1. ^ A brief history of Chinese history. Chinese government network. 2001-07-01 Reference date 2018-06-15
  2. ^ "New Tang Book·Volume Ten": "The first month of Tianyou's first lunar month, all loyal to Tang Dynasty in Luoyang."
  3. ^ a b Note: "Introduction to Chinese Historical Geography" (Volume 2), Wang Yumin's point of view: The peak of the Tang Dynasty Tianbao account was 80.5 million. Page 54.
  4. ^ a b Note: From the Border Town of the Border City, the test of the Chinese territory area v7.0
  5. ^ "New Tang Book·Volume Ten": "The first month of Tianyou's first lunar month, all loyal to Tang Dynasty in Luoyang."
  6. ^ The Tang Dynasty flourishing (618-907). People's Network. 2006-02-23 Reference date 2018-04-02
  7. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · Chapter 7 "The Politics of the Tang and Emperor Xuanzong's Politics and the Angstroms of History" Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 75-79. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  8. ^ a b Du You's "Tong Dian·Food and Beverage Seven": There are three million households in the National View of the Temple, and it is only a hundred and thirty years before the end of Tianbao. The prosperity of the Holy Tang Dynasty, in the Western Han Dynasty, is about the number of books in the world, and the number of famous books is less than three million. Since the time of the visit, it has added 5.9 million. At that time, there were 8.9 million people in the world. The Hanwu army was halved, and the number of people was halved. Later, in the second year of Emperor Pingdi, after seventy years, there were 2, 200, 000 households. In the 100th year of the Tang Dynasty, although the soldiers began to fight, they did not reduce consumption, but the floating sun and the public did not accept the map. If you compare the amount of Han, there is an increase in the number of real people, and there are about 13 million people in the world.
  9. ^ Ge Jianxiong. History of China's Population Development: Fujian People's Publishing House, 1991: 159
  10. ^ a b "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties, Chapter VI, Emperor Wuhou". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 62-67. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  11. ^ Wang Yuankang, "Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and China's Power Politics." Columbia University Press. Page 124. ISBN0231151403.
  12. ^ Michael Robert Drompp. Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire. Brill Academic Publishers. 9. ISBN 9004141294 .
  13. ^ a b Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 116-119. ISBN:9787510800603.
  14. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" volume one hundred and ninety-three: Yan Guan four years ... Si Yijun Chang Yan asked for Tian Khan, Captain: "I am the Tang Dynasty, and down the Khan thing?" Both the minister and the four are called long live.
  15. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian · Volume 198": Bing Shen, 诏 纥 纥 瀚 瀚 瀚 瀚 瀚,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, For the turtle forest, the thought is Lushan Prefecture, the 浑 is the Lanzhou, the 斛 Xue is the Gaozhou, the 奚 is the chicken deer, the 跌 is the chicken field, the 苾 is the 榆溪州, the thought is the other Yulin Prefecture, Baiyu is set to Yanzhou; each with its chieftain as the governor, the thorn history, each giving gold and silver enamel and Jinpao. Muller was overjoyed, holding a cheering dance and turning into the dust. And also, on the Royal Heavenly Temple banquet, set up ten music and sent it. The chiefs of the emirates said: "Chen and so on are both Tangmin and the Heavenly Supreme Court. If you are a monk, please open the south of the south and the north of the Turk, and say that the Khan Khan Road, set sixty-eight, each has a horse. And the meat and meat for the sake of the mess, the old tribute to the skin to fill the rent, still please belong to the literati, so that the table is sparse." So the North is ridiculous, but when it comes back to the fascination, it has been privately called Khan, and the official numbers are like abrupt stories.
  16. ^ a b c Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 93-119. ISBN:9787510800603.
  17. ^ Fan Wenzhao. "General History of China · Chapter VII" Cultural Overview of the Tang and Five Dynasties
  18. ^ Feng Tianyu, Yang Hua, Ren Fang. History of Chinese Culture: Higher Education Press, 2005
  19. ^ Feng Tianyu. Yang Hua. Ren Fang. "Chinese Cultural History". Higher Education Press. 2005
  20. ^ a b Huang Renyu. "China's Great History · Chapter 10 · The Second Empire: There Has Been a Breakthrough, But Unfinished
  21. ^ The Tang Dynasty - the prosperity of the Silk Road. Phoenix Network reference date 2015-06-08
  22. ^ Note: According to the geographical scale of the old Tang Book and the New Tang Book: Xijing Jingzhao (now Xi'an) population of 1.96 million; Tokyo Henan Province (now Luoyang) population of 1.18 million Weizhou (present-day Daming County) has a population of 110, 000; Nanjing Chengdu has a population of 920, 000; Songzhou (now Shangqiu) has a population of 879, 410; Chenzhou (now Xingtai) has a total of 8.3 million One hundred and twenty people; the population of 470, 000 in Taiyuan, Beijing; the population of 690, 000 in Changzhou; the population of 570, 000 in Ganzhou.
  23. ^ "Ming History·Foreign Zhenla Biography": "The Tang people, Zhu Fan (foreigners) call the Chinese people. Also all overseas countries."
  24. ^ a b Jiang Zengqing. "The Outline of Chinese General History · The Fourth Chapter · The First Chapter · Sui and Tang Dynasties".
  25. ^ "An Introduction to Chinese Historical Geography" (Volume 2), Wang Yumin's point of view: the peak of the Tang Dynasty Tianbao account is 80.5 million
  26. ^ Note: In addition, the "Sui Shu" that was revised in the Tang Dynasty in 636 is also called "Datang". Because the monarch is surnamed Li, it is also called "Li Tang."
  27. ^ In the 20th year of the "Old Tang Book, Volume 145", Taizong sent the left defender General Ashi Nasheer as the general manager of Kunshan Road, and An Xidu Huo Guo Xiaoyu and Si Nongqing Yang Hongli led the five generals. There are more than 100, 000 rides in the Thirteen soldiers of Tie Le, to cut the turtles. "Old Tang Book" volume 198 Helu found Li Yun as Mo Heyi Ye Hu, number invaded the Western Buddhism, and entered the Tingzhou. In the past three years, the resignation of Zuowuhou General Liang Jianfang and the right defending general of the generals of the squadron of the squadron of the squadrons of the squadrons of the squadrons of the squadrons of the squadrons of the martial arts, 50, 000 squadrons, and more than sixty people... . In the second year of Xianqing, the right defending general Su Dingfang, Yan Ran was guarded by Ya Xiang, the deputy guardian Xiao Yuye, the left general defender, the Bohai governor back to the mother-in-law and other teachers to attack. "Old Tang Book" volume 194 years under Yonghui two years, He Lu broke the North Court, the generals Liang Jianfang, Qi Qi He Li led the 20, 000, took back 50, 000 rides, broke the Helu, and recovered the North Court. In the first year of Xianqing, He Lu made another mistake. 诏程知节, Su Dingfang, Ren Yaxiang, Xiao Yuye led the troops and returned to the Great Broken Helu Yuyin Mountain, and then broke through the Jinya Mountain, and collected the evidence, Xiqiao to Yerochuan... Yonghui six years, returning to send troops With Xiao Yuye to discuss Gory.
  28. ^ Fan Wenzhao. "Chinese General History · Chapter 2 · The Period of Feudal Economic Prosperity and Great Expansion - Tang"
  29. ^ a b c Hu Rulei. Tang. Encyclopedia of China. Encyclopedia of China Publishing House.
  30. ^ Note: Due to the falsification of Chinese history during the Manchu period, there are rumors that the Li family has Xianbei blood. However, in modern times, Mr. Chen Wei in his book "The History of Political History in the Tang Dynasty" and "Study on the Origin of the Sui and Tang Dynasties", the Li family was not from the Xiliang royal family and the Guanlu noble Li, but only Zhaojun Longqing Li in Hebei A small branch of the family, and the area in which this branch is located is under the rule of the Northern Wei Dynasty regime of Xianbei Tuoba. There are two of the ancestors of this Li family, one is Li Chugu, one is Li, and the other is Han. According to this, Mr. Chen asserted that the ancestor of Li Tang was the fallen army of the Han people who were given a fresh name.
  31. ^ a b c Jiang Zengqing. "Outline of Chinese General History, Part IV, Chapter I, Sui and Tang Dynasties"
  32. ^ a b Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties, Chapter IV, The Death of the Sui Empire". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 42-44. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  33. ^ Hu Rulei. Tang. Encyclopedia of China. Encyclopedia of China Publishing House.
  34. ^ Tang Wang Li Shimin - continue to open. Xinhuanet Shaanxi Channel Reference Date 2013-09-09
  35. ^ "Tong Dian" records Du Zhenglun's "...the end of the chaos, there are two million households in Wude"
  36. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The First 144th of the Biography": "The beginning of the Khan Kyrgyzstan, the Kaimin Khan also. The great cause of the great cause, the world is chaos, the Chinese are rushing to the public. East from Qidan, Shiwei, Xidu Tuyuhun, Gaochang Zhuguo, all belong to the genus. Controlling the string more than one million, the North Disheng, there is nothing."
  37. ^ "The New Tang Book · The First Hundred and Fortyth of the Biography": "The chaos of the great cause of the great cause, the beginning of the Khan Kyrgyzstan, the Chinese are more dependent, Qidan, Shiwei, Tu Guzhen, Gaochang are the genus, Dou Jiande, Xue He, Liu Wuzhou, Liang Shidu, Li Wei, Wang Shichong, etc. set off the tiger's eye, and learned the court. The control of the string and the million, the 戎 炽 强,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
  38. ^ Wang Yongxing. A Brief Commentary on the Military History of the Early Tang Dynasty: Kunlun Publishing House, 2003: 202
  39. ^ Du You's "Tong Dian": There are three million households in the National Treasures, and it is only a hundred and thirty years in the end of Tianbao. The prosperity of the Holy Tang Dynasty, in the Western Han Dynasty, is about the number of books in the world, and the number of famous books is less than three million. Since the time of the visit, it has added 5.9 million. At that time, there were 8.9 million people in the world. The Hanwu army was halved, and the number of people was halved. Later, in the second year of Emperor Pingdi, after seventy years, there were 2, 200, 000 households. In the 100th year of the Tang Dynasty, although the soldiers began to fight, they did not reduce consumption, but the floating sun and the public did not accept the map. If you compare the amount of Han, there is an increase in the number of real people, and there are about 13 million people in the world.
  40. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 43-48. ISBN:9787510800603.
  41. ^ a b c The editorial department of the Earth Publishing House. Volume V ‧ Sui and Tang Dynasties · Chapter 1 · Reconstruction and Development of a Multi-ethnic Unity Country
  42. ^ On June 12, 618, Tang Gaozu Li Yuan was acclaimed by Emperor Gong and established the Tang Dynasty. Sina reference date 2013-09-09
  43. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties, Chapter Five, Politics of Emperor Taizong". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 49-53. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  44. ^ "Old Tang Book": Tie Le Hui, Tuan Ye Gu, Tong Luo, servant bones, more than Ge Ge, Si Jie, A fell, Qi Qi, Wu Jie, Yi, Yu Xue and other eleven surnames sent to tribute, played Said: "Yantuo Khan is not a big country, the tribe is scattered, I don't know what it is. The slaves and other places have different points, they can't go to Yantuo, and they will return to the emperor, and they will set up Han officials." In September, Jiachen, the tribes of the Tiel, and the squadrons, sent thousands of people to the Lingzhou, and they came to the tribute. So the northern desert was flat, and the five-character poems were ordered.
  45. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties, Chapter Five, Politics of Emperor Taizong". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 53-57. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  46. ^ Xu Dacheng, Jin Kaicheng. "The Great History of China---The Rule of Zhenguan": Xu Dacheng|Editor: Jin Kaicheng, 2011, ISBN:9787546350554
  47. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties, Chapter Five, Politics of Emperor Taizong". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. 60-61. ISBN:9787510800603.
  48. ^ a b Sima Guang·Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume One hundred and ninety-nine
  49. ^ Hu Sanxing's injection of Zizhizhijian - Zizhi Tongjian Volume 195. Guoxue navigation reference date 2013-09-09
  50. ^ Note: During the period, the martial arts mainly attacked the Western Turkistan and occupied the Western Regions, attacking Goguryeo, Baekje, and occupying most of the Korean Peninsula.
  51. ^ Note: The population increased from 3 million to 3.8 million in the period of the Zhenguan period. Due to the abuse of the people by the Emperor Sui, and the war that lasted for more than a decade in the late Tang and early Tang dynasties, the population in the early Tang Dynasty plummeted.
  52. ^ "Old Tang Book" "(Showing the second year, 657) December, Yi Yi, also Luoyang Palace. Gengwu, changed the word '昬', '叶'. Ding Wei, handcuffs changed Luoyang Palace to Dongdu, Luoyang officials The order is in the state of Luzhou. It is the evening, the emperor collapsed in the temple, at the age of 56."
  53. ^ "Old Tang Book, Emperor of the Emperor"
  54. ^ (Showing the second year, 657) December, Yi, also Luoyang Palace. Gengwu, change the word '昬', '叶'. Ding Wei, handcuffed to change the Luoyang Palace to the East, Luoyang official grades and Zhuzhou. On the eve, the emperor collapsed in the temple, at the age of 56.
  55. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The Fourth Book of Gao Ji": "It is the evening, the emperor collapsed in the Temple of Luoyang Palace, at the age of 56."
  56. ^ "The Old Tang Book, the sixth, the Emperor of the Emperor" "The first year of the Spring Festival of the Holy Year of the Sui Dynasty, the Emperor Shen, the change of the Yuan.... September, the world is changed, the Yuan is changed to the Guangzhai. The flag is changed from gold to purple. The paintings are essays. The East is changed to the capital of the gods, and the names of the provinces and the divisions are changed."
  57. ^ a b Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · Chapter VI · The Emperor of Wuhou". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 62-67. ISBN:9787510800603.
  58. ^ The historical changes of the Central Plains hot land. Sina reference date 2013-09-09
  59. ^ "Chinese General History, History of the Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House.
  60. ^ "Old Tang Book": "On September 9th, at noon, the Tang Dynasty is ordered, and the country is changed to Zhou. The Yuan is changed to Heaven, and the world is sacred. It is given seven days. It has been smashed, and the Emperor of the Holy Spirit is the Emperor.祠. Bing, the first seven temples of Wu’s temple in the gods.”
  61. ^ Gengwu, change the word '昬', '叶'. Ding Wei, handcuffed to change the Luoyang Palace to the East, Luoyang official grades and Zhuzhou. On the eve, the emperor collapsed in the temple, at the age of 56.
  62. ^ "New Tang Book ‧ Volume 157 ‧ Lu Xie Biography No. 82": "Wuhou received the hearts of the people, and they are arrogant, non-disciplinary people have to recommend scholars, and they are also self-sufficient, not easy to swear? Speed, so when the world is known to know the people, tired of the use of Lai Duo."
  63. ^ In the first year of Tianxue (690 years), Wu Zetian changed the Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, and the Datang State was changed to the Great Zhou Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty entered the Wu Zetian period, and later became Wu Zhou. Chang'an Five Years (705 years), Wu Zetian was in his son Tang Zhongzong, and Tang Zhongzong restored the Tang Dynasty. No. However, the historians of later generations also separated the Wu Zhou period from the Tang Dynasty and still regarded it as a period of the Tang Dynasty. See: Fu Lecheng
  64. ^ "Old Tang Book": "(In the first year of the first year of the year), on the 9th of September, the Tang Dynasty, the name of the country is changed to the week. Bingy, the first seven temples of the Wu family in the capital."
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tang Dynasty history. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  66. ^ "(The first year of the first year of the year) September 9th, the afternoon of the Tang Dynasty, the name of the country is changed to the week. The yuan is changed to heaven, and the world is crowned, and the day is given. It has been smashed, and the emperor of the sacred god is the emperor.祠. Bing, the first seven temples of Wu’s temple in the gods.”
  67. ^ "Old Tang Book": "(Showing the second year, 657) December 卯 卯, also Luoyang Palace. Gengwu, change the word '昬', '叶'. Ding Wei, hand 诏 changed Luoyang Palace to Dongdu, Luoyang Official grades are approved for the state."
  68. ^ "Old Tang Book": "Xuanzong Zhidao Dasheng Da Ming Xiao Emperor Qianlongji, Ruizong third son also, the mother of the day Zhaocheng Shunsheng Queen Dou's. The arch of the first year of the eighth year of the Eighth Spring Festival, was born in the East."
  69. ^ a b Tang Xuanzong Li Longji. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  70. ^ "The whole Tang Wenwen twenty-seventh. The whole rule of the shackles": Every October, the ruling party is the most inspected by the court, from the first to the fifth, and the slogan is still detailed. The state is also classified as a fifth-class performance. The top class is the most, the lower class is the temple, the middle third class, and the subordinates are good or bad. The county magistrate elects the pre-existing articles in the annual elections. In the case of any surgery, the applicant has two applicants and the hukou to reinstate the examination, and choose the Japanese and the internal officials. It has a guest and a test taker, and there is no limit to the number of listeners, excellent and disciplinary. The first amount of the history of the stabbing and the Beijing official. If you can't change the change in the state, the purple and yellow door will be recorded and praised. The Beijing official has never been a county official, and may not be a provincial official. The selection of the cadres is particularly important. It is limited to the choice of work, or the loss of the job, the election of one or two thousand people, no need to limit the amount of money, must be studied in a realistic manner, can not be blamed. Since the ancient township selection, the practitioners of the class. The Ming Dynasty is the first person to visit the gentry, the annual governor's visit, the industry's revision, the book is judged, and the three selections are heard. And those who choose the color, if there is no homesickness, and the book is weak, the number of choices is deep, and it is not in the limit. Chonghua is sensible, and must win people, praise and persuasion, and the righteous teachers. All of them are annoying, they have not heard of the case, and they are not able to follow the name and blame. Choosing an official for a person is still awkward. It is not a matter of reconciliation, it cannot be followed, and it must be summed up to make it worse.
  71. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian · Volume 211": Or in the captain: "This year's election is a big abuse, the county magistrate is not talented." And thank you, on the call to the county magistrate in Xuanzheng Palace, try to understand People policy. However, the city of Wei Ji made the first word of Wei Ji, and he became the first order. Two hundred people are not in the first place, and they are the official; forty-five people are placed in the school. The sergeant Lu Lang was willing to move left to the state of Yuzhou, and Li Chaoyin moved to the slippery state of the state. From the six years of willingness to the election, both the name and the imperial concealment.
  72. ^ "Tongdian·Volume Nineteen": Xuanzong Yuji, prime minister Yao Yuanchong, Song Yi and the Department of the Ministry of Shangshu, Dazhi rape, ten to its nine. At that time, there was a priest in the temple, Shi Cui, and the prince of the prince, Xue Zhao, who satirized the emperor: "The first dynasty was given the official seal, and the life was already clothed, and Yao Yuanchong, Song Yu and other emperors of the emperor, resentment, roads 谤讟The world is praised. The enemy and the tens of thousands of people are enemies, and there is a great change. "There is a slap in the face, "It’s a slogan: "There are slanting seals, don't swear by the officials, shillings are suspended, and the materials should be used." "Monitoring the imperial history of Liu Ze is also sparse, and it is extremely difficult to say: "The slanting of the official is exempt from sin, and has been sinful. In the first ten months, the frequency of troubles is reduced, and the former stipulations are taken to the winter, and the shackles are ordered to stop. What will be used to stop traitors? What will be used to punish customs?"
  73. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume Forty-nine": In the 21st year, Yao Qing was Jing Zhaoyin, the capital of the capital was hurt by the rain, and the price of the grain was expensive. Xuanzong asked Yao Yaoqing and said: "Xi Yuguan, Yonghuizhi At the same time, Lu Wei is not wide, every year old transshipment, but the 20-square stone will be enough. Today, the country is gradually widening, and the transportation is several times, and it cannot be supported. From the capital to the Shaanxi, the river road is difficult and dangerous, using both land transportation and no reason. If you can merge the river and change the land into water, you will have more than enough money, and you will have a lot of money. And Jiangnan rents a boat, waiting for the water to start, Wu people are inconvenient to pull, the place is where they stay. The sun and the moon are both flooded and burglary. The minister looked at the estuary to set up a warehouse, and Najiangdong rented the rice, and then put the boat back. From the estuary, it was divided into the river, Luo, and the officer hired the ship to carry it. The east of the three gates, set a warehouse. The three gates are both water insurance, that is, The river bank is open to the mountain, and the car is transported for ten miles. In the west of the three gates, another warehouse is placed, and each time it is transported to the warehouse, it is stored under the same conditions. The water is transported and the water is fine. The Taiyuan warehouse is not overlooked. The province is in the middle of the dynasty. The former Han Dynasty is in Guanzhong, and the time is a little longer, and the 隋 is also in the capital, and the rivers have old warehouses, so the country is often used." In August of the year, he set up Heyin County and Heyin Cang, Hexi Baiya Cang, Sanmen East Jijin Cang, Sanmen Xiyan Cang. Open Sanmen Mountain for eighteen miles to avoid danger. From the Jianghuai and trace the gap, the Yinna River septic. Since Heyin sent the Jiacang, and sent the Taiyuan warehouse, which is called the North. Since Taiyuan warehouse is floating in the hustle and bustle, it is actually closed.
  74. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume 48": In Kaiyuan, there is Yu Shiyu Wenrong's policy, including the remaining field of the book: the color service is false, and the fugitives are returned to the head, free of five years. The amount of tax per 10, 000 is 1, 500 yuan, and the censorship is taken. More than 800, 000 households, Tian also said that it is worth millions of money, Xuanzong thought it could be, for several years, it was pulled into the imperial clan and the minister.
  75. ^ "New Tang Book Volume 50": Since Long lived in dereliction of duty, Ma Zheng was quite abolished, Yonglongzhong, Xiazhou Wrangler's death and loss of 184, 900. In the second year, Yan Qunmu was a high-quality product, and the royal history was inspected. At the beginning of Kaiyuan, Guoma benefited, too often Shaoqing Jiang Yan was pleased to sue the city horse in Liuhu, with a rate of 30 hatred guerrilla generals. Wang Maozhong lives inside and outside the leisure. In nine years, he said: "There are horses in the world, and the prefectures and counties are all mailed to the military service. The family is resurrected to rise. The people are afraid of hardships, but they are not livestock. Nowadays, the people of Zhuzhou are not allowed to have any shades. They can have more than ten horses, and they are free from postal mailings. There is no such thing as a horse." Mao Zhong leads the leisure, the horse is slightly restored, starting from 240, 000 to ten. Three years is 430, 000. Later, the sudden shackles, Xuanzong Hou Fuzhi, the old Xu Wei Fang Jun West by the city to the mutual market, to the Jinmao City, Yu Hedong, Yu Fang, Yu Youmu. Both are mixed, and Ma is strong. After Tianbao, the army and the horses fought for thousands. The princes of the princes, the princes and the horns of the oxen, and the priests of the ox, the priests and the priests of the priests and the priests of the priests and the priests of It is said that since the Qin and Han dynasties, Tang Ma has been the most prosperous, and the emperor has revered the martial arts and weakened the northwestern Fan. For eleven years, there will be no private grazing for five hundred miles next to the second. For thirteen years, the two groups of the priests and the priests played: the horses and llamas totaled six hundred and five hundred and six hundred, while the horses were thirty-five thousand and seven hundred and seven hundred.
  76. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume 39": Long live the second year of the sky, for the Qidan Li Wanrong. In the first year of Shenlong, Shifu was set up in Youzhou, and still led Yuyang and Yutian counties. In the fourth year of Kaiyuan, the relocation was also in Liucheng.
  77. ^ "New Tang Book Volume 216": Princess to Tubo, from the city to live. A visit to the governor of Zhangzhou. Although the outside of Tubo is angry with the yin, it is thick and thick, please ask the Hexi Jiuqu as the princess Tang Mu, the watch and its land. The nine songs, the water licorice, the animal husbandry, and the Tang. Since the benefit of Zhang Xiong, easy to enter. . Goshenham broke Hongji, the city of Damonmen, and collected the land of the nine songs, the county, Shi Tianbao twelve years. So he set the spirit of the army in Linyi West, the river county in the west of the stone, and the Wanxiu army to the real river.
  78. ^ "Old Tang Book Volume 159": In the third year of Kaiyuan, its leader Li was inactivated by the imperial government, and the rate was attached. Inactivation, that is, from the father and the brother. So reset the Songjiang Dudu government.
  79. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume 38": Ping Lujun's festival, the town of Fu Wei, Wei, Tong Ping Lu, Lu Long Second Army, Shaoguan Shouxiang, Anton Dufu.
  80. ^ "New Tang Book, Volume One hundred and thirty-eight": Gao Xianzhi discusses the law, and the Department of Industry and Zhonglang will make Tian Zhen the right knife. When the Tubo soldiers were 100, 000 Yule City, according to the mountains and rivers, the joint wood was used as a scorpion. Xianzhi Qianjun night Jixin Tuhe, let 曰: "and break the thief in the afternoon, no one is dead." 嗣 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提 提From it. I don’t know what to do with the army, because of the big collapse, the 18 who died in the cliff. Drums drive to Bolu, the main owner of the poultry, Pingzhi.
  81. ^ "Old Tang Shu·Volume One Hundred and Twenty-eight": Twelve years, Fengchang Qing Dynasty, Xianzhi, to discuss the big bodhisattva, the division of He Salou city, the battle to win. Chang Qing Zhunzhi, Xiu Shijin 曰: "thief soldiers, bait me also, please prepare left and right, search for its forest." 遂歼 伏 伏, change the 绥 德府 冲冲.
  82. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume 194": In the summer of the twenty-sixth year, Moheda Gan Lebing attacked Sulu at night and killed it. Du Modu had a conspiracy with Moheda, and Russia was opposite. The son of Sulu was a Khan, and the rest of the group was attacked by Moheda. Moheda sent a confession to Anxi to protect Jiayun. Jia Yun led the soldiers to discuss it, and the defeated all were the people of Modu, and they came to the fire scent, and they received the Golden River Princess. I also want to establish the son of Shi Huai Dao as a Khan to caress, and Mo Heda refuses to do it. He said: "It is my Yuanmou to discuss Ping Sulu. If the history is the main one, why should the country reward me?" It’s not a history, it will make Moheda do the same. In February of the twenty-seventh year, Jia Yun’s rate was to be donated by the gentry, and Xuanzong’s Royal Garden was feasting, and it was still to be given to the temple. Russia and Huang surnamed and black surnames slaughtered themselves.
  83. ^ "Old Tang Shu·Volume One Hundred and Fourty-Five": The small killing is a big vibration, and there are all silent people. Russia also sent a request to the peace, and Xuan Zong as a son, on the Xu. . For fifteen years, Xiaomei made his minister, Mei Lu, come to the DPRK and offered thirty horses. When Tubo and the small killing book, they will be considered at the same time, and they will kill and offer their books. Shangjia Qicheng, the banquet of Meilu, was banqueted in the Purple Temple, and it was still a tribute to the city, and it was still the place where the city was reduced to the city by the city. Every year, hundreds of thousands of horses were left behind.
  84. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume One hundred and Three": When the Turkic Guards are new, there is a hardship in the new loyalty. Wusumi Shikhan was afraid to drop, but he could not delay. Loyalty is in the opposite direction between the three secretaries, the Gelulu, and the Hui tribes. The loyalty of the loyalty was sent to the right side of the army, and its west leaves and Piaggaton, the male murder of Ge Lai, led his tribe to the dynasty, because of the addition of the left martial arts general. Next year, again, the anger will be abrupt. Since I was out of the way, I didn’t dare to enter. Three treasures of Tianbao, the Turkic nine surnames and the Miye, etc. actually attacked Usumi Shikhan and passed the first division.
  85. ^ "Old Tang Book" "(Showing the second year, 657) December, Yi Yi, also Luoyang Palace. Gengwu, changed the word '昬', '叶'. Ding Wei, handcuffs changed Luoyang Palace to Dongdu, Luoyang officials The order is in the state."
  86. ^ "New Tang Book, Food and Food": It is the richness of the sea, the age of the world: renting more than two million yuan, more than 980, 000 yuan, more than 7.4 million horses, tens of eight More than 100, 000 yuan, more than 135 million.
  87. ^ "Yuanjishanji·Volume Seven": Kaiyuan Tianbao cultivator Yili; within the four seas, the mountains are absolutely perfect, the 耒耜 is also full, the people's grain reserves are several years old, Taicang commission, stale can not compete.
  88. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · Chapter VI · The Emperor of Wuhou". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 75-79. ISBN:9787510800603.
  89. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume One Hundred and Eighty-eight": And also, the banquet of the Imperial Palace, set up ten music and sent it. The chiefs of the emirates said: "Chen and so on are both Tangmin and the Heavenly Supreme Court. If you are a monk, please open the south of the south and the north of the Turk, and say that the Khan Khan Road, set sixty-eight, each has a horse. And the meat and meat for the sake of the mess, the old tribute to the skin to fill the rent, still please belong to the literati, so that the table is sparse." So the North is ridiculous, but when it comes back to the fascination, it has been privately called Khan, and the official numbers are like abrupt stories.
  90. ^ In the first year of Tianxue (690 years), Wu Zetian changed the Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, and the Datang State was changed to the Great Zhou Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty entered the Wu Zetian period and later became Wu Zhou.
  91. ^ a b c Fan Wenzhao. "Chinese General History, Chapter 2, Feudal Economic Prosperity, Great Expansion Period, Tang", p. 3.
  92. ^ Jiang Zengqing. "The Outline of Chinese General History·The Fourth Chapter·The First Chapter of Sui and Tang Dynasties".
  93. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · Chapter 7 "The Politics of the Tang and Emperor Xuanzong's Politics and the Angstroms of History" Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 79-84. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  94. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · The Seventh Chapter "The Politics of the Tang and Emperor Xuanzong" and the History of the Angstroms" Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 84-93. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  95. ^ Tang Shunzong Li Wei. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  96. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The Sixth Book of the Emperor of the Ages" is changed to the heavens, and the world is crowned, and the heavens are given seven days. It has been smashed, and the Emperor of the Holy Spirit is the Emperor of the Sun, and the emperor is the emperor. Bingyin, the first seven temples of Wu In the gods."
  97. ^ Tang Xianzong Li Chun. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  98. ^ a b Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · The Twelfth Chapter "The Eunuch and the Party Struggle". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 149-155. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  99. ^ Tang Wenzong Li Ang. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  100. ^ a b Tang Wuzong Li Yan. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  101. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume 18, · The Eighteenth of the Age, Wu Zong Li Yan"
  102. ^ Tang Xuanzong Li Wei. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  103. ^ Bai Shouyi, "Chinese General History, Volume VI Middle Ages, Sui and Tang Dynasties (Volume 2)", Shanghai People's Publishing House
  104. ^ Tang Yizong Li Wei. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  105. ^ a b Tang Yizong Li Wei. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  106. ^ Why did Tang Zhaozong move to Luoyang? . Interest history reference date 2017-12-24
  107. ^ a b Tang Zhaozong Li Wei. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  108. ^ Fu Lecheng. Chinese history, the history of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Kyushu Publishing House: Kyushu Publishing House, 1993: 102-106
  109. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · The Thirteenth Chapter "The Fall of the Tang Empire", Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 158-167. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  110. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume One hundred and thirty-eight": "Tai Zong, after the Ming Emperor, is far from the Great Passage, north to the fairy, and in the bones of the Xuanzang State. Gao Zongyi's achievements, Ke Guangqian Lie, relocating bicycles, Xi Yue on the mountain, in the Boss Si Li Ma Lingfu. Zhong Zong compounding the days of the industry, not losing old things. Rui Zong contains the innate quantity, but the new Yongtu. Xuanzong to Daxiaoqing Inside, to be unreasonable, Dawan 骥 recorded, aged and guilty, and the sergeant of the sergeant, 岂 岂 岂 岂 ” ”!
  111. ^ Song Yan. Estimation of Territorial Areas of Several Dynasties in Chinese History. Historical Theory Research: p. 150.
  112. ^ a b Territory and political area. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  113. ^ "Old Tang Book": "It has been smashed, plus the honor of the Emperor of the Holy Spirit, the Emperor of the Emperor of the Emperor, the Emperor of the Emperor, the Emperor of the Emperor.
  114. ^ Han Longfu. A Brief Discussion on "Journal of Xiangtan Normal University (Social Science Edition)", 1994, 05
  115. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 213-215. ISBN:9787510800603.
  116. ^ a b Bureaucratic system. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  117. ^ Wang Jueren. "Bloody Tang Dynasty 5: The Prosperity, the Anshi Rebellion": Phoenix Publishing House, 2012, ISBN:9787550616035
  118. ^ a b c Yang Zijia. "A Word is Difficult: A Historical Scene of the Sui and Tang Dynasties": Gu Wuxuan Press, 2012, ISBN:9787807337478
  119. ^ a b c Introduction to the Tang Dynasty and an overview of the history of the Tang Dynasty. China History Network reference date 2013-09-09
  120. ^ The official rank of the Tang Dynasty military commander. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  121. ^ "A Brief History of Ancient Chinese Economy, Chapter 4, Feudal Society, Northern Sui and Tang Dynasties (Preliminary) Economy, Fudan University, 1982.
  122. ^ "A Brief History of Ancient Chinese Economy, Chapter 4, Feudal Society, Northern Sui and Tang Dynasties (Late) Economy, Fudan University, 1982.
  123. ^ a b Crafts and art of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. China's five thousand years reference date 2013-09-09
  124. ^ Wang Zhongqiang, Jin Kaicheng. "Chinese Cultural Knowledge Reader: Ancient Handicraft Industry": Jilin Publishing Group Co., Ltd., Jilin Wenshi Publishing House, 2010, ISBN:9787546315737
  125. ^ Talking about "Kaiyuan Tongbao". People's Education Network 2010 Reference Date 2013-09-09
  126. ^ Kaiyuan Tongbao - the currency reform that has affected the history of China for nearly a thousand years. Phoenix Network reference date 2013-09-09
  127. ^ a b economic. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  128. ^ Yang Jun. "The past generations changed the "Kaiyuan Tongbao" layout circulation money": "Chinese Coins", 2007-03
  129. ^ The Ancient "Two Tax Law" and Its Financial Thoughts (II). Phoenix Network reference date 2013-09-09
  130. ^ "The Old Tang Book Volume III, the Third Book of the Third Age, Taizong" "(Zhao Guan, eleven years in February) Jiazi, fortunately, Luoyang Palace, the sacrifice of the Han Wendi. March Bing, the day is eclipsed. Dinghai, driving to Luoyang. C Shen, changed Luozhou to Luoyang Palace."
  131. ^ "The Book of the Yuan Dynasty, the tortoise, the volume of 468": In October of the second year of the Qing Dynasty, Gao Zong asked the Chinese book to order Du Zhenglun. There are several households in the middle of the book: "There are eight million households in the early days of the great cause. There are two million households in Germany."
  132. ^ Note: According to the statistics of the old Tang Book Geography, the state of the state.
  133. ^ "Tong Dian·Food Seven": The Tang Dynasty is less than three million. In the past three years, the Chinese Department played the Chinese, and the Chinese were sent to the state and county by the foreigners.
  134. ^ a b "Tang Hui wants to volume eighty-four": Yonghui three years in July. The Ministry of Housing has a high performance. There are 3.8 million households.
  135. ^ a b "Old Tang Book, Volume Eighty-eight": It is the age of the old, and then moved to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, playing the book, the number of households was 6, 615, 161.
  136. ^ a b "The Old Tang Book · The Ninth Book of the Ninth": In its case, the Ministry of Housing and Family Accounts this year saw the Guan County County Account: the county has a total of 321, the county is 1, 538, and the township is 16, 860. Nine; households, 961, 920, 254, 3, 880, 600, 500, no class, 5.3 million, 14, 000 lessons; mouth 5, 280 Eighty-four four hundred eighty-eight, four thousand five hundred and twenty-eight thousand four hundred and eighty-eight classes, seven hundred and sixty-six thousand two hundred and eighty-eight classes.
  137. ^ a b Ge Jianxiong. History of China's Population Development: Fujian People's Publishing House, 1991: 150-163
  138. ^ Du You's "Tong Dian·Food Seven": My country from the beginning of Wude to the end of Tianbao, where the hundred and thirty-eight years, can be compared to the Chong Han room, and the people are compared to the Yu family, the Secretary has not been to the country The law does not work, and it is hidden.
  139. ^ "Ten Roads" - "匪" Road. People's Network reference date 2013-09-09
  140. ^ Note: "Chinese Population History", Zhao Wenlin, Xie Shujun, p. 179.
  141. ^ Note: "China's Population History, Volume II, Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties", the view of the frozen Guodong: The population peak of the Tang Dynasty was about 1430-154 million households in the 13th year of Emperor Xuanzong Tianbao (754), 7475-80.5 million. Page 182
  142. ^ Note: "The History of China's Population Development", Ge Jianxiong's point of view: The peak population of the Tang Dynasty was between 8, 000 and 90 million. Page 159
  143. ^ "The House of the Yuan Yuan" is a volume of four hundred and eighty-six: (隋) in the end of the year, there are two million households in Wude.
  144. ^ The seventh volume of the "General Code": (隋) in the last years of chaos, to Wude has two million households.
  145. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The Eighth of the Eighth": In May, the household account was accounted for. This year, the households were 765, 565, and the mouth was 4, 141, 197, 700. Twelve.
  146. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian · Volume 213": In May, 癸卯, the Ministry of Housing played the current year of 765, 560, 165, mouth 4, 141, 97, 000 One hundred and twelve.
  147. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The Eighth of the Eighth": The number of households in the household account was 7, 816, 236, and the mouth was 4, 543, 160.
  148. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian · Volume 213": The world's households are 7.816 million, two hundred and thirty-six, with a mouth of 4, 543, 160.
  149. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume 38": In the 28th year of Kaiyuan, the household account was accounted for, and the county government had three hundred and twenty-eight, and the county had five hundred and seventy-seven. Quzhou County, not counting. The number of households is 441, 2, 881, and the mouth is 4, 814, 143, 600, and should be affected by the field of 1, 44, 3, 386, 620. Three acres.
  150. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The Ninth Book of the Ages": In the year, the world's county government was 362, the county was 1, 528, and the township was 16, 8, 229. The household account has been accounted for. This year, the number of households was 8, 552, 763, and the number was 4, 890, 900.
  151. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume 217": It is the age, the Ministry of the Family plays the world of 321, the county is 538, the township is 860, 280, and the household is 9.6. Nine hundred and nine hundred and fifty-four, mouth five thousand two hundred and eighty-eight thousand four hundred and eighty-eight.
  152. ^ "Tong Dian·Food Seven": Fourteen years old, the total number of households is 8, 911, 700, and the total mouthpiece is 5, 291, 999, 390. and also.
  153. ^ "Tang will want to volume eighty-four": the first year of the German. The households are 8, 181, 710.
  154. ^ "The House of the Yuan Yuan, the volume of the four hundred and eighty-six": the first year of the German. The households are 8, 181, 710.
  155. ^ "Tong Dian·Food Seven": Su Zongyuan three years, see the account of 169 states, the total number of households should be 193, 134. The total number of non-users is 1, 714, 595, and the number of students is 7, 580, 582. The total number of nozzles is 169, 398, 386, and the number of passes is 1, 461, 999, 587, and the number of classes is 2, 337, 770.
  156. ^ "Tang will want to volume eighty-four": Guangde two years. The number of households is 293, 330.
  157. ^ "Tang will want to volume eighty-four": the first year of Jianzhong in December. Set two taxpayers in the world. Where three hundred and eighty five five thousand seventy-six.
  158. ^ "The Old Tang Book · The Sixth Book of the Age": It is the old age, the household account, the total number of households is 2, 337, 500, and the total number is 15.76 million.
  159. ^ "Tang will want to volume eighty-four": Kaicheng four years. The Household Accounts Department has a total of 4, 996, 760.
  160. ^ "New Tang Book Volume fifty-two": At the end of Huichang, the number of households increased to 495, 515.
  161. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · The Nineteenth Chapter "The Academics of the Tang Dynasty", Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 243-247. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  162. ^ a b c Culture, art and religion. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  163. ^ Tang Dynasty. Chinese heroes and heroes cited the date 2013-09-09
  164. ^ (Xuchang historical celebrity) painted St. Wu Daozi. Shangdu Culture Network reference date 2013-09-09
  165. ^ The fifth section of Wu Daozi and his school. Bobao Art Network reference date 2013-09-09
  166. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · The History of the Five Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties · The Nineteenth Chapter "The Academics of the Tang Dynasty", Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 247-253. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  167. ^ Introduction to Chinese sculpture. Buddhist navigation reference date 2013-09-09
  168. ^ Qin Jian. Appreciation of Liu Gongquan's Calligraphy Works: New Long March, No. 18, 2007
  169. ^ Sumen, Dong Yingquan. "Liu Tishu's Writing and Writing". Beijing: Beijing Sport University Press, 2013, ISBN: 9787564411725
  170. ^ Technology. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  171. ^ a b diplomatic. Chinese emperors cited dates 2013-09-09
  172. ^ "Old Tang Book, Volume III": Tie Le Hui, 拔野古, Tong Luo, servant bones, more than Ge Ge, Si Jie, A fell, Qi Qi, down, 浑, 斛 Xue and other eleven surnames The tribute, said: "Yantuo Khan is not a big country, the tribe is scattered, I don't know what it is. The slaves have their own points, they can't go to Yantuo, they return to the emperor, and they set up the Han officials." In September, Jiachen, the tribes of the Tiel, and the squadrons, sent thousands of people to the Lingzhou, and they came to the tribute.
  173. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 93-96. ISBN: 9787510800603.
  174. ^ a b (French) René Gruze, translated by Lan Qi. "The Prairie Empire, Chapter 2, The Early Middle Ages: Turkic, Resurrection, and Khitan": The Commercial Press, 2007, ISBN:9787100028622
  175. ^ "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" Huichang two years: that handsome and its own self-vibration, Datong, East because of Shi Wei, Black Sand, South Fun and Wu Jun, glimpse of Youzhou. The Lulong Festival caused Zhang Zhongwu to send his younger brother to the 30, 000-strong squad, and the big slasher, the dagger’s hunter was incomparable, and he collected the seven thousand accounts and distributed them. Then he walked, and Uzbek Khan got killed. Although Wushangzhong was attenuated, it was still numbered 100, 000, and was stationed in the Datong Army in the north of the Damen Mountain... Liu Wei played the movement in Yunzhou. Li Zhongshun played back and broke it.
  176. ^ "The Old Tang Book" is listed in the first hundred and forty-five: back to the 鹘 勒 勒 庞,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, You wait for seven, a total of 30, 000 people, and descended to Youzhou in the same time. There are three parts of the genus, the genius, the genius, and the sorrowful sorrow.
  177. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History, History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties, Chapter 11 and Foreign Relations after Anshi". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 138-145. ISBN:9787510800603.
  178. ^ Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. 107-110. ISBN:9787510800603.
  179. ^ Song Chengyou: "The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 - The Turning Point of Japanese History and the International Pattern of East Asia", Japanese Journal, 2014, No. 5.
  180. ^ How to treat and understand the "Third Long March" of the Xi Dynasty. Xinhuanet reference date 2015-06-12
  181. ^ a b Shi Tao, Song Yan. "The picture shows the Chinese monarchy 181 dynasty minority regime in the Tang Dynasty - Xue Yantuo Khanate, Huihan Khanate, Muse Khanate": China Changan Press, 2009, ISBN: 9787510700873.
  182. ^ Sima Guang·Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Volume 200·Tang Ji XVI
  183. ^ Zizhi Tongjian. Guoxue navigation reference date 2013-09-09
  184. ^ Goguryeo stood for seven hundred years with a small fight. Hexun.com reference date 2013-09-09
  185. ^ a b History said Li Shimin three signs Gaogouli. Sina reference date 2013-09-09
  186. ^ a b c d e f g Shi Hai: The collision of the empire - the battle between Datang and the Arab Empire. NetEase.com reference date 2012-07-11
  187. ^ The collision of the empire: 80, 000 Great Tang Army against 200, 000 Arab Imperial Army. Strong country network reference date 2013-09-09
  188. ^ a b Fu Lecheng. "Chinese General History · History of the Five Dynasties of Sui and Tang Dynasties". Kyushu Publishing House. 2009. pp. 103-107. ISBN:9787510800603.
  189. ^ In 793, Wei Wei sent troops out of Xishan, breaking the people of Tubo, and pulling out the Fortune Gate. Jiannan, Xishan Zhuxi Queen Tang Lizhi, brother Wang Dongting, White Dog Wang Luo Tuo, Wet Water Wang Dong Pihe, Nanshui Wang Xue Moting, Xue Dong Wang Tang Zanzan, Qingyuan Wang Su Tang Mo, Yu Bawang Dong Yupeng and the king of renting the king, the first are all Tubo, and all the handsome people are attached to the Tang Dynasty.
  190. ^ Princess Wencheng. Tibet online reference date 2015-06-12