|English name||Katherine Mansfield|
|Foreign name||Katherine Mansfield|
|Country of Citizenship||United Kingdom|
|Place of birth||Wellington, New Zealand|
|Date of birth||October 14, 1888|
|Date of death||January 9, 1923|
|Career||Cultural feminist, short story writer |
|Major achievements||The founder of New Zealand literature, the liberator of the feminist ideology |
|Representative work||Garden Cocktail, Happiness, in the Gulf|
- Katherine Mansfield (1888-1923), short story writer, cultural feminist  The founder of New Zealand literature, known as one of New Zealand's most influential writers for more than 100 years. 
- Famous works include "Garden Reception", "Happiness" and "In the Gulf". Her creation points to the living situation of women. In a unique form, she provides a literary solution to the social issue of feminist liberation. 
- Katherine Mansfield was born on October 14, 1888 in Wellington, New Zealand. His real name is Catherine Baump, and the family has nothing to do with Russia. Catherine’s childhood was spent in Victorian culture and New Zealand’s beautiful natural environment. When she was 15 years old, she left home to go to London, England, and went to Queen's College to study French, German and music. She fell in love with literature and started writing, writing short essays and poems. 
- Her early work was mainly a series of sketches, such as "The Accommodation in Germany" in 1911, which has few features. In 1912, she met the critic and editor Murray, who shared their interests and lived together. Murray is a good companion in her life and literary creation. In 1914, her novels "Rhythm" and "Melancholy Review" were edited and published with the help of her husband, Midol Moore. The second marriage brought happiness to her. After the start of World War I, she continued to travel between Britain and France and saw her only younger brother. This meeting prompted her to turn to the hometown of New Zealand and memories of her childhood. However, her brother died unfortunately on the battlefield, which not only made her sick and weak, but also caused her to be emotionally alienated from her family. In the midst of depression, Catherine Mansfield sent her love and ink, and the famous novel "Overture" written in the South of France revealed her fond memories of New Zealand's hometown. 
- In 1920, the novel "Happiness" was published, which brought her great prestige. In 1922, another collection of novels, The Garden Tea Party, further stabilized her position in the British literary world. It is here that her unrecognized emotional life seems to have found its sustenance. This should 
- The love of Russian culture made her think that she is a Russian from her character. The characters in her works are all "Russian style", their inner world is full of entanglements and struggles, and her brushwork is naturally similar to Russian masters. The masters of Tolstoy, Dostoevsky and Chekhov are her literary couples: "I can't express the great influence and inspiration of Tolstoy on me. A few words of gratitude are not enough. After reading Dostoevsky's "Ghosts", she was deeply touched by the writer's "people under the dim street lights". The psychological description of the Tao was branded deep in her own creation. Imprinted. 
- Her last time was spent at the Human Harmony Development Agency hosted by French Fontainebleau George Goodwin. In an environment where more than 40 Russian cultural people live and there is a wonderful atmosphere of Russian culture, Catherine Mansfield keeps animals, waits for flowers, and writes and lives calmly and bleak. The Western press has also begun to compare her artistic achievements with Chekhov. In 1923, the Soviet Union official expressed interest in her. The Soviet National Press published and published the Russian text of her two novels. Later, she won the official recognition of the Western cultural community with her sympathy for the lower class. In the 1960s, the two most authoritative English textbooks selected her novel "A Cup of Tea" for grammar practice texts. 
- On January 9, 1923, Catherine Mansfield, who suffered from tuberculosis all year round, died at the age of 35. In the world of Catherine, death is quiet and comfortable, even beautiful. The last sentence she had before her death was: "I love the rain, I want to feel the feeling of falling on my face." 
- Among the male writers in the West, D.H. Lawrence is really adoring Mansfield. He believes that Murray is cooking things from the papers of Mansfield and is also a "genius work." Coincidentally, Chinese poet Xu Zhimo is also full of reverence for Mansfield. He may be the only Chinese writer who has seen Mansfield, although it is only one side, but 
- As one of the innovators in the field of British short stories, Mansfield's short stories show a very different narrative style from traditional short stories. After the innovation of British short stories, they have been widely recognized by the world. Katherine Mansfield is hailed as an outstanding short story writer in the 20th century. Her contribution to English short stories lies in her unique novel narrative art. The expression of the "nothing" structure in her work is one of the most striking features of her writing skills and style. It broke through the traditional form of fiction, created a completely new narrative technique, and made an indelible contribution to the development of English short stories. 
- When Mansfield died in 1923, he was only 35 years old, and it was just half a year before her death that Chinese poet Xu Zhimo and she had seen one side. Xu Zhimo then wrote the famous poem "Women Manjue". 
- In 1920, Xu Zhimo left the United States and crossed the Atlantic to the United Kingdom. During his studies and travels in the UK, he met many British writers and poets. Xu Zhimo first met Mansfield’s husband, editor-in-chief of London’s Athena., poet, literary critic Mai Lei. One day in July 1922, Xu Zhimo and Mai Lei were in a noisy tea shop in London. 
- At the time, Mansfield was suffering from tuberculosis. When he spoke, his voice was slightly higher, and his lungs screamed like a pipe. Every time the words are collected, there is always some shortness of breath, and a layer of ruddy is added to the cheeks. Xu Zhimo looked at her difficult situation, and her heart was very uncomfortable. She lowered her voice and hoped that she would follow it down. This move was effective and her voice was reduced a lot. Most of the conversations between them were comments on the current situation of the British literary world. Mansfield criticized the most popular novelists at that time, and then talked about her admiration and admiration for China, saying that she likes to read Chinese poetry and praises it. Chinese poetry is a miracle. She also advised Xu to translate Chinese poetry because Chinese poetry can only be translated well by the Chinese. Mansfield also asked Xu Zhimo what writers he liked, and Xu answered that he had Chekhov, Hardy, and Conrad. Finally, Mansfield asked Xu Zhimo what he planned to do after returning to China. He hoped that Xu would not ask politics. He said that the world of modern politics, no matter which country, is just a mess and sin. Talking about her work, Xu Zhimo said that her work is pure art, I am afraid it is difficult for ordinary people to understand. Mansfield said: "This is the case, popular fashion is not what I am pursuing." Xu Zhimo said that he would like to have the opportunity to translate her novels in the future, hoping to get the author's consent. Mansfield said that she certainly wants to, and modestly said that her work is not worth translating. At the end, Mansfield invited Xu Zhimo to Switzerland to find her, saying that she liked the Swiss landscape, the charm of Lake Geneva, the tranquility of the country pasture. When Xu promised to go back and forth to Europe, he must visit her in Switzerland. In just 20 minutes of meeting, Xu Zhimo received a spiritual baptism, and later published a book entitled "Man Bi Feier". 
- On January 9, 1923, Mansfield died in France's Fontainebleau. On March 11, Xu Zhimo wrote a poem "Women Manjue" and pinned his grief over Mansfield.  On October 29, 1923, Xu Zhimo translated a lyric of Ms. Yan Si from Mansfield's novel "The Garden", published on December 1st, "The Morning 5th Anniversary Supplement", and later received the Shanghai New Book Bureau in April 1927. Version of the British Mansfield Fiction Collection. 
- Xu Zhimo also accepted the trust of the translation of Mansfield's novels. In November 1924, he and Chen Yuan's "Mansfield Fiction Collection" was published by the Commercial Press and listed as the third in the "Fiction Monthly". Xu Zhimo wrote "Mansfield" and translated "An Ideal Family." In 1925, Xu Zhimo wrote another article, "Speaking of Mansfield, " in the "Fiction Monthly", Volume 16, No. 3, which called Mansfield one of the most important writers of the 20th century. 
- In 1927, he translated himself into the "Mansfield Fiction Collection of the United Kingdom", published by the North New Book Company, in addition to retaining "Mansfield" and "An Ideal Family", added "Garden", "Poison", " Buck's mother's line, "a cup of tea", "night time", "happiness", "wind" and "canary". In 1930, Xu Zhimo translated Mansfield's three poems "Meetings", "Abyss", "Sleeping Together", titled "Mansfield's Three Poems", published on August 15th, "Changfeng "Half-monthly. In front of these three translated poems, Xu Zhimo wrote a small note. 
- Looking at Xu Zhimo’s commemoration of Mansfield’s article, I feel like a flattered boy. He’s very good at Mansfield’s beauty: “I saw Mansfield’s appearance as India’s purest jasper. The gaze of her current filled with souls, feeling her most soft and spring breeze, I can only call it a whole beauty." 
- Xu Zhimo is somewhat a somewhat exaggerated romantic. His stunning and rhetorical creations can't be compatible with Mansfield's simple style. The writers who stayed in the early days of China have some exaggerated problems. But in any case, this meeting left Xu Zhimo with a very good impression. Although there were good people who thought that there was a secret love between them, it was probably because of Xu Zhimo’s article about "Mansfield". Mansfield’s despair and disgusting immersion in the stunning Xu Zhimo can’t be imagined anyway. 
- The theme of Mansfield's novels is often not difficult to understand. Her novels are much like Chekhov's works, often with some unexpected twists and changes in time and space. Good at expressing the complex subtleties between men and women and the unexpected direction of passion. At the same time, her words also strive to simplify, and strive to delete the words that are dispensable. She used a lot of modernist expression techniques to dilute the language of poetry from the plot and feminine perspective, the use of impressionist techniques and the use of symbolism as a distinct modernist tendency.
- Mansfield dedicated her short life to the creation of short stories that were rarely valued by British writers and shaped many female images. Her pen in her hand, blending into her personal experience and life experience, describes the hardships of her kind in the struggle of the world, portraying the loneliness and disillusionment of the majority of women in the capitalist social life. Feelings, fears and their rebelliousness and resistance, they expressed their deep thoughts and silent sighs, expressing their right
- Images and symbols have always been the writing techniques that writers love. In her short stories, Catherine Mansfield also used a lot of formal techniques such as images, symbols and different narrative perspectives. In her novels, there is a special group of images, which gives her special meaning in addition to the traditional meaning. Imagery mode: First, the sense of tragedy - loneliness and death; second, childlikeness - truth, goodness, beauty and disorder. By contrast, Mansfield believes that children are the best natural state and the highest personal ideals in life. For this reason, she devoted her life to recalling the motherland and childhood, and wrote a child-like adult, which reflects a return to the roots and the return of the child. "tendency. These images show the meaning of the novel in the form of a miniature, revealing the theme of the novel and conveying the author's thought and emotional state.
- Catherine thus formed an organic blend of traditional symbols and modern symbols, enriching the theme of the work, and making the charm of his works enduring. Mansfield's novels are more like a record of everyday life. The theme of her novels is separated from the theme of traditional novels. Instead, she writes ordinary characters and trivial things into novels, and carefully selects meaningful details to portray characters and reveal themes. This requires a keen eye to support the life scenes that appear in the fading time lapse, which makes people feel the meaning of the writer in the seemingly idle, relaxed daily life. 
Analysis of works
- The transformation of the female theme of Mansfield
- the first sort
- A young woman who struggles and struggles to survive. These works are mostly produced in the early days of her creations, including "Jobs for Job Hunting", "A Cup of Tea", "Amazing Dreams of Rosa", "A Day of Miss Moss", "The Maid of the Hostess", "Buck" Mother's life, etc. These works blended with Mansfield's early experiences.
- In the novel "Miss Moss's Day", Miss Moss has no results in her job search, and she is frozen and hungry. The landlady asked her to pay the rent and gave her an ultimatum. She was allowed to pay the house before 8:00 in the evening. Otherwise, don't blame her. Miss Moss had to go out and find a chance. She looked around for a career attempt and went to a coffee shop. She quickly sat down with a strong gentleman. He regarded her as a prostitute. In the end, she pushed the boat and walked with the gentleman.
- "Job Seeking Girl" is an early work of Mansfield. It is a time for a small woman who has just got a tutor position to take a boat, train to the Green Hotel, and meet with a wife who came to her house. This is the first time she traveled alone on her own, traveling alone in a foreign country at night, from England to Germany. The most worrying job seeker is sexual harassment from a strange man, and her fear of uneasiness in this regard is portrayed by the author.
- Mansfield's early works were flawed. She could not make a reasonable extension of the described events, explore the roots of its creation, and then achieve the negation of the entire social system, so that the works have a deep and historical background. Her thoughts and descriptions are rarely beyond her own real experience, too tolerant, modest, and the cruelty of reality in faint grief and self-comfort. 
- Second class
- The second class of Mansfield shows the marriage and family life of middle-class women. Such works include "Happiness", "Stranger", "Wind", "Mr. Pigeon" and "Mrs.", "Garden Tea Party", "Ideal Family", "Overture", "In the Gulf" and so on. The emergence of the second type of work began to shift from simply describing the external life phenomenon to spiritual exploration, marking her female subject consciousness to be conscious.
- "Happiness" is one of Mansfield's masterpieces. The heroine of this novel, Bessa, is a young woman living in a dream. After her death, her heart burns a happy flame and loves her life. When she found a friendly relationship between her husband and her friends, the flame of her inner happiness was ruined by cold disappointment and pain.
- In this novel, one thing to note is that in this beautiful spring, love evokes the lust that Bessa rarely appears, but Harry enters the cold palace. At the beginning, Bessa was a fire, and later it was cool. The steep turn of this plot also highlights the seriousness of female emotional destruction.
- "Happiness" reveals the illusory nature of the character's happiness, and also reveals the author's distrust of the relationship between the two sexes.
- Mansfield is concerned about the stability of marriage, but there is no happy family model. In most families, it is hard to say that there is direct male oppression, bullying or violence. On the contrary, under the deterrent of women, men lose confidence and authority. Such as "Modern Marriage", "Ideal Family". The situation of men in the family is reminiscent of women’s encounters in the early works of Mansfield.
- The full expansion of Mansfield's own experience and personality in the novel conveys the reflection and destruction of traditional women's values. This is the key to understanding Mansfield's second and third works. 
- In Mansfield's diary, one can see her misery and boredom with the existing world. She even desires to go to Africa and India for the peace of mind. In October 1922, shortly before her death, that is, more than two months after Xu Zhimo visited her, she wrote in her diary:
- "My spirit is dead. The source of my life has reached the moment when the source is blocked but still not dead... I am a deadly and incorrigible waste. What is my life like? A parasite is smashing and stealing." 
- 1991 "In a German Pension"
- 1992 "The Garden Party: and Other Stories"
- The Doves' Nest: and Other Stories, 1923
- Bliss: and Other Stories, 1923
- The Montana Stories, 1923
- Poems, 1923
- Something Childish, 1924
- 1927 - 1957 "The Journal of Katherine Mansfield"
- Two volumes, 1928 - 1929 "Catherine Mansfield Letters"
- The Aloe in 1930
- 1930 "Novels and Novelists"
- 1937 "Catherine Mansfield Short Story Selection"
- The Scrapbook of Katherine Mansfield, 1939
- Two volumes, 1945–1974 Catherine Mansfield Short Story Collection
- 1951 Letters to John Middleton Murry
- 1978 "The Urewera Notebook"
- 1987 Catherine Mansfield Review Collection
- Four volumes, 1984-1986 "Catherine Mansfield Letters"
- Two volumes, The Katherine Mansfield Notebooks, 1997 
- The Woman At The Store (1912)
- "Bill Barton's Kidnapping" How Pearl Button Was Kidnapped (1912)
- Millie Millie (1913)
- "Childish but natural but natural" Something Childish But Very Natural (1914)
- Family Female Teacher The Little Governess (1915)
- Cinemas (1917)
- "Paper Page" Feuille d'Album (1917)
- Dill Pickles A Dill Pickle (1917)
- "I don't speak French" Je ne parle pas français (1917)
- Overture Prelude (1918)
- "In Increcreet Journey" (1920)
- "Blour" (1920)
- Miss Brill (Miss Brill (1920)
- Psychology (1920)
- "Yangyang and Bright" Sun and Moon (1920)
- The Wind Blows (1920)
- "The Day of Mr. Reginald Picock" Mr Reginald Peacock's Day (1920)
- Martial à la Mode (1921)
- The Voyage (1921)
- Her First Ball, Her First Ball (1921)
- Mr. and Mrs Dove (1921)
- Life of Ma Parker (1921)
- The Daughter of the Late Colonel The Daughters of the Late Colonel (1921)
- Little Girl The Little Girl (1912)
- Stranger (1921)
- The Man Without a Temperament (1921)
- At The Bay (1922)
- "Flies" The Fly (1922)
- Garden Party (The Garden Party) The Garden Party (1922)
- "A cup of tea" A Cup of Tea (1922)
- The Doll's House (1922)
- A Self-report of a Married Man A Married Man's Story (1923)
- Canary (The Canary) (1923)
- The Singing Lesson
- An Ideal Family 
- The short life of the female writer Mansfield has a rough experience. She was weak in her childhood and was famous for Meihui, but her life was basically unfortunate. The suffering of her heart and the failure of love were the reasons for her premature death. In New Zealand, where art life is poor, in order to get better literature development, Mansfield gave up the happy and affluent life of New Zealand and traveled alone to London, England. From the moment I set foot on the land of London, fate determined that she became a wandering soul without home. The complex personality of Mansfield has experienced the same complex life course, and she has been roaming throughout her life - New Zealand, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom have her footprints. The only constant in the life course of roaming around is her love of literature. 
- "No one like Catherine Mansfield has used so many writers to confuse so many writers." - People say she is like DH Lawrence and V. Woolf. Her creations were accompanied by loneliness and affliction, and her work was therefore more involved in family events and the misfortune of marriage. She scribbles the characters and often sculpts them in detail. After her death for many years, her influence on the style of short stories was gradually recognized and recognized by people. 
- Her life is like the famous "Garden" she wrote in 1921, and she is like Laura in the novel. People saw a simple and stubborn wealthy woman who broke free from the noise of the garden, bravely approached the outside world, and approached the face of death. It was a quiet face that was infested with everything in the world. The face of death seemed even more real, more energetic and more beautiful than the living being around her. 
What Links Here
- Wu Qun. Catherine Mansfield: A Feminist Pioneer: "Cultural and Educational Materials", No. 36, 2007
- Zhang Yang. The Mature of "The Garden Party" and Mansfield's Feminist Thought: "Modern Marketing (College Edition)", No. 08, 2011
- Graffiti commemorates New Zealand women writers who have had a relationship with Xu Zhimo. Tianwei News Network cited date 2014-09-03
- Zhu Wang. Feminism and Class: On Women in Mansfield's Novels: Foreign Languages, 2009, 01
- Katherine Mansfield's Russian complex. Guangming network reference date 2014-07-04
- Shu Yuntong. A kite flying in New Zealand - the drama of the short story Queen Mansfield: World Culture, No. 04, 2011
- Xu Wei. A Study of the Modernist Characteristics of Katherine Mansfield's Short Stories: Yunnan University Press, 2007-9-1
- Zhao Youbin. Mansfield and Xu Zhimo: Journal of Sichuan Teachers College (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 1995, 01
- Xu Zhimo, "Man Shufeier": "As for the clear and quiet of her eyebrows and noses, I can't express my feelings in case; it seems that you are facing the masterpieces of nature, whether it is the lakes and mountains in the autumn, the glory of the clouds Or the starry sky of Nanyang Yingchao, you only think that their overall beauty, pure beauty, complete beauty, beauty that cannot be analyzed, can not be said to be beautiful; you seem to understand the will of the highest will directly and unimpededly You have experienced infinite joy in the greatest and profound sting, and have solved your spirit in a larger personality. I saw Mansfield's most pure jasper-like appearance in India, filled with her. The gaze of the current of the soul, feeling her most soft and springlike style, the total amount I can only call it a whole beauty. She seems to be a transparent body, you are only surprised that she is very thorough. Sex, but can't see some impurities."
- Xu Zhimo, "Worry Man, Feifei: I dreamed of going to the valley last night, listening to the rules and weeping blood in the lily. I dreamed of the peak last night, and saw a light tear falling from the sky. There is a cemetery on the outskirts of ancient Rome, quietly chanting the poems of a hundred years ago; after a hundred years, the sea sergeant's black scorpion wheel is ringing in the green forest of Fangdanbulo. Saying that the universe is a ruthless machine, is the ideal of a lamp that shines in front? Saying that creation is the creation of truth, goodness and beauty, why do the five rainbows do not live in the sky? I only met you once with you - but that time is not dead! Who can believe in your graceful posture, has it been like a eternal person? Not also! Life is just a fantasy of the entity: the beautiful soul, the darling of God's love; the thirty years of living, just like the singularity of flowers, I want to see you laughing in the tears. Do you remember the London Prophet, Mansfield! See you on the edge of Qinni Lake this summer; Qinni Lake always holds the shadow of Bailangji, and I look at Yuntian, and tears down! When I came to the news of life at the beginning of the year, my dreams suddenly felt the solemnity of love; the consciousness of life is the adulthood of love, and I am now born and loved by the end of love! Compassion is a pure crystal that is unbreakable. Love is the only way to realize life. Death is a sacred furnace, and it is the god that has been condensed in Vientiane. I am sorrowful, can you fly like a flower, and touch you in the spirit of Tianmanshu? I shed tears in the wind and asked when I could break the door to life and death.
- "British Mansfield Fiction Collection": This life is tired - tired, a tear, a sigh. Love is also changing - heart, such life is tired - tired, a tear, a sigh. Love is not long - long time, time is up... everyone - go back? This life is tired - tired, hope is coming, still dying. A dream, a wake up. ..........
- "Let's talk about Manshufeier": "Her art is to work in the seams of time and space. Her method is not reflected in the mirror, not in the pen, not in her own fantasy, she clearly extends two intolerance. The fingers of love go to the brains of others to catch the shadows of the unformed thoughts, forcing them to be in their original form. The short story is in her hands, like in the hands of Chaihov, is pure art (not just the art) It is art); the jade that she has made is not only without freckles, but also with ash, and it is all finished. The highest art is a wonderful system that is inseparable from form and essence; we look at Mansfield's The novel can't tell where the style is, and where it is quality. What we get is just an impression. A true and beautiful impression is like seeing the shadow of a plum blossom in a calm stream. It is clear and beautiful."
- Xu Zhimo's small note: "Meng Bifei, she is just different. Her poems, like her prose, have her unique breath and charm. A simple mysterious beauty will always tremble on her nib. She I hope that my life is a kind of crystal realm; in personality, in thought, in the art of expression, she will always stare at that one. She has a younger brother, she loves him the most. He is dying. This is a great blow to her, she feels the unspeakable sorrow. At the same time, this great event also makes her observe the life more deeply, leaving deep traces in her works. These three poems My suspicions are written for her brother. My translation is of course a rough rate to an awkward level, but you may be able to feel Mansfield, with a voice that sounds like a child. Her thoughts are a group. Sheep crossing the road in the snow night; can you let them walk into your heart like a sheep to their circle?"
- A special British love: Xu Zhimo and Mansfield. Sina reference date 2014-07-04
- Jiang Ni. The Female Theme and Narrative Strategy of Katherine Mansfield's Short Stories: Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2008
- Zhao Youbin, Lin Zhi. An Analysis of the Theme of Mansfield's Novels: Journal of Chongqing University (Social Science Edition), 2000, 03