|Latin name||Zingiber officinale Rosc.|
|Nickname||Ginger, White Ginger, Chuan Jiang|
|Distribution area||Central and southeastern to southwestern China, also cultivated in tropical Asia|
|Namer and age||Rosc., 1807|
- 1 Ginger
- 2 Morphological characteristics
- 3 Growth habit
- 4 Geographical distribution
- 5 Main variety
- 6 Breeding method
- 7 Cultivation Techniques
- 8 Pest control
- 9 Main value
- 10 Chemical composition
- 11 Discussions
- 12 What Links Here
- 13 References
- Ginger (Zingiberaceae).
- Ginger (scientific name: Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a ginger perennial herb. A rhizome with yellow-green flowers and a pungent aroma. The plant height is 0.5-1 m; the rhizome is thick, multi-branched, with aroma and spicy taste. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, glabrous, sessate; sate sate. The peduncle is up to 25 cm long; spikes glabrous; bracts ovate, pale green or margin yellowish, minutely apate. Calyx tube ca. 1 cm; corolla yellow-green, lobulate lanceolate; valvate valvate ovate. 
- In the central and southeastern parts of China, the provinces of Xianfeng, Longlongfeng, Tongshan, Yangxin, Echeng, Xianning and Daye are widely cultivated. It is also cultivated in tropical Asia.
- The rhizome is used for medicinal purposes, and the fresh or dried product can be used as a cooking ingredient or as a pickles or sugar ginger. Stems, leaves and rhizomes can be extracted from aromatic oils for use in food, beverages and cosmetic fragrances. 
- (Overview image reference source  )
- Leaf blade lanceolate or linear lanceolate, 15-30 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide, glabrous, sessile; leaf membranous, 2-4 mm long.
- The peduncle is 25 cm long; the spikes are cone-shaped, 4-5 cm long; the sepals are ovate, ca. 2.5 cm long, pale green or margin yellowish, apically apically apically; calyx tube ca. 1 cm. Corolla yellow-green, tube 2-2.5 cm, lobes lanceolate, ca. 2 cm long; lobes central lobes oblong-obovate, shorter than corolla lobes, s. Stamens dark purple, anthers ca. 9 mm long; appendages approximate, ca. 7 mm.
- Flowering: Autumn. 
- Ginger is native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. It prefers a warm and humid climate. It has weak cold and drought resistance. Plants can only grow in frost-free period. The optimum temperature for growth is 25-28 °C. When the temperature is lower than 20 °C, the germination is slow. Will fade, the roots of the frost will completely lose the ability to germinate. 
- Ginger is not able to withstand strong sunshine, and the requirements for the length of sunshine are not strict. Therefore, when planting, you should set up a shade shed or use appropriate crops to shade, avoiding strong sunlight. 
- The root system of ginger is underdeveloped, and its drought-tolerant and anti-snoring properties are poor. Therefore, the requirements for moisture are particularly particular. During the growth period, the soil is too dry or too wet, which is unfavorable for the growth and expansion of the ginger block, and it is easy to cause the disease to rot. 
- Ginger likes fertile loose loam or sandy loam, growing poorly in sticky, low-lying, low-lying areas, and growing poorly on poorly water-stained land. Ginger has the most need for potassium fertilizer, followed by nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer. 
- Ginger is widely cultivated in the central and southeastern parts of China, and the provinces of Xianfeng, Longlong, Fengshan, Tongshan, Yangxin, Echeng, Xianning and Daye. Shandong's Anqiu, Shandong Changyi, Shandong Laiwu, and Shandong Pingdu Dazeshan are especially famous for their production. It is also cultivated in tropical Asia. 
- Lu Jiang No.1
- Shannong Da Jiang 1
- The large ginger and high-yield ginger varieties selected by Shandong Agricultural University have flat leaves and thick green leaves, and the upper leaves are concentrated, and the effective photosynthetic area is large; the branches are few and thick, and the above-ground stems are generally only 10- 15; ginger root is also small and strong, ginger is large, ginger buds are strong, good commodity traits, moderate spicy taste; strong cold resistance, suitable for early planting and delayed harvest; generally yielding 6, 000 kg per mu, high yield Up to 7500 kg. 
- Shannong Da Jiang 2
- Among the varieties introduced by Shandong Agricultural University from abroad, it was selected by mutagenesis of tissue culture tube seedlings. Generally, the root weight of a single plant is about 800 grams, and the weight is more than 2000 grams. It produces 3, 500 kilograms per mu, and high-yield can reach more than 5, 000 kilograms. 
- Laiwu Xiao Jiang
- Laiwu Ginger
- Local varieties of Laiwu City, Shandong Province. The plant has a tall plant and a strong growth potential, and the general plant height is 80-90 cm. Generally, the roots of a single plant weigh 350-450 grams. Usually the output per mu is about 2000 kg, and the high yield field can reach 3500 kg. 
- Dredging big meat ginger
- The fleshy roots are clustered, the branches are sparse, into a single row, the rhizome is hypertrophy, the buds are pink, drought-tolerant, and water-repellent. The meat is yellowish white, the skin is light yellow, spicy, less fiber, good quality, 1-3 kg per plant. 
- Mil-fried minced ginger
- The fleshy roots are clustered, with strong dividing forces, and the branches are densely arranged in a double arrangement. The meat is dense, the fiber is more, the taste is hot, the quality is good, the meat and the epidermis are pale yellow, the bud is purple and red, and the individual plant is 0.75-2 kg, which is drought-tolerant and resistant to disease. 
- Tongling white ginger
- Local varieties in Tongling area of Anhui Province are more common in Anhui Province. This variety is a good raw material for making sugar ice ginger. The plant has strong growth potential, the plant height is 80-90 cm, the leaves are dark green, the rhizome is hypertrophy, the branches are dense, and the ginger balls are arranged in two rows. Fresh ginger has a smooth skin, showing a milky white to pale yellow color, and a tender pink color, which is relatively thick. Ginger block is in the form of bergamot, with large skin and thin fiber, low fiber content, crisp meat, less juice and less slag, rich aroma, medium spicy taste and good quality. Suitable for a variety of uses such as fresh food, pickled, sugar stains. The roots of a single plant weigh 450-650 grams, producing 1000 kilograms per mu, up to 2400 kilograms. 
- Feng Jiang
- The local varieties of Laifeng County in Hubei Province are more common in Hubei Province. The plant has a strong growth potential and the plant height is 50-70 cm. Generally, the roots of a single plant weigh 400-550 grams, producing 1, 500 kilograms per mu. The variety has poor storability and moderate disease resistance. 
- Sichuan bamboo root ginger
- Sichuan local varieties. The plant is about 70 cm high, and the leaves are lanceolate and green. The rhizome is irregular palm shape, the epidermis is pale yellow, the tender buds and the top scales of the ginger ball are purple-red, the meat is crisp and tender, the fiber is less, and the quality is excellent. Generally, the root weight of a single plant can reach 250-500 grams, and the yield per mu is about 2500 kg. 
- Xilin Fire Ginger
- Fire ginger plant height 50-80 cm, more branches, ginger balls are smaller, the individual is well-proportioned, arranged in two layers, the roots, stems and flesh are light yellow, tender buds purple, dense meat, spicy flavor, thin skin Thick, fresh and spicy, tender and delicious, with low moisture content, suitable for making roasted ginger. This roasted ginger retains the original flavor of fresh ginger, is easy to preserve and transport, and has high use value. 
- An Jiang 2
- An Jiang 2 is a new turmeric variety selected by Northwest A&F University. The variety has good yield, strong resistance and medium saponin content. It is a turmeric variety with good comprehensive traits.
- Taiwanese ginger 
- Nanshan Jiang
- Distributed in Guangxi, Yunnan, Shaoguan, Shaoxing, Guangdong, its ginger to be small ornamental is almost, but the medicinal value is very high, the taste is sufficient, in the local use of rice wine, eggs and Nanshan ginger with boiled for the mother to eat, very nutrition.
- Ginger does not use seeds to breed, but uses ginger to make asexual reproduction, so there is no main root, which is a shallow root crop. After the ginger block is planted, several adventitious roots occur from the stem of the young shoot, and several small lateral roots occur on it. After entering the prosperous growth period, several fleshy roots can also occur from ginger and ginger, and these fleshy roots also have certain absorption capacity. The stem of ginger is divided into two types: the ground stem and the underground stem.
- 1. Above the stem. The ground stems of ginger are erect, 60 cm to 100 cm high. Some species in the aboveground stems have fewer branches and thicker stems, which are called sparse seedling types. Some varieties have more branches and more stalks.
- 2. Underground stems. The underground stem of ginger is called the rhizome, which is both a product organ and a reproductive organ. The formation process of the rhizome is: when the ginger grows out, it gradually grows into the main stem. As the main stem grows, the base of the main stem gradually expands to form a small rhizome, often referred to as the "ginger mother." The axillary buds on both sides of the ginger mother can continue to sprout 2-4 ginger seedlings, that is, one branch, and the base gradually enlarges to form a ginger block, called the ginger. The lateral buds on the ginger continue to germinate, and the new shoots are taken as the second branch, and the base is swollen to form a secondary ginger block called Sun Jiang. The third, fourth, and fifth ginger pieces continue to occur until the harvest, and a complete rhizome composed of ginger mother and multiple ginger is formed. Under normal circumstances, the more branches of the aboveground part of ginger, the more ginger in the underground part, the larger the yield, the higher the yield. The leaves of ginger are lanceolate and alternate, and the sheaths with leathery under the leaves enclose the stem. There is a hole in the leaf and the sheath, and the new leaves are taken out from the hole. 
- Usually planted in spring, harvested before the frost. Because ginger is warm, not cold-resistant and frost-resistant, it must be cultivated in a warm, frost-free season. To determine the sowing date of ginger, the following conditions should be considered:
- 1. According to the temperature required for germination, it should be sown when the temperature of 10 cm is stable above 16 °C;
- 2. According to the growth habit of ginger, to obtain higher yield, it is necessary to have 135-150 days of time suitable for ginger growth; according to local climatic conditions, ginger is generally sown after convulsions until mid-April, sowing too early, ground temperature Low, slow germination, and late planting, the growth period is shortened and the yield is reduced. 
- During the germination period of ginger, the ginger is supplied with nutrients. The seedling stage grows slowly and requires less fertilizer. After the “three-stranded cockroach”, it needs a lot of nutrients, accounting for 88% of the total absorption during the whole growth period. The demand for fertilizer in the whole growth period is the highest in potassium fertilizer, followed by nitrogen fertilizer and less phosphorus fertilizer. The absorption ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) and potassium (K 2 O) is 1:0.5:2. Under medium fertility conditions, the production of 1000 kg of ginger products requires absorption of nitrogen (N) of 5.76 kg, phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) of 2.54 kg, and potassium (K 2 O) of 11.47 kg. Fertilization should be based on the rules of ginger fertilizer, soil total nutrients and fertilizer effects, in accordance with the principle of combining organic fertilizer with inorganic fertilizer, base fertilizer and top dressing, and implement balanced fertilization. Ginger roots are weak, shallowly distributed, and have a long growth period, and must be applied to the base fertilizer. It is best to deepen the weathered soil before winter, and the spring is fine. In combination with the tumbling, generally 3000 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer and 30 kg of potassium sulphate per mu, or 800 kg of organic fertilizer compound fertilizer per acre and 20 kg of calcium per gram. After the base fertilizer is applied to the ground, it can be made into a flat file, or it can be ditched for broadcast. Ditching is used, the groove distance is 50-55 cm, the groove width is 25 cm, and the groove depth is 10-12 cm. 
- You should choose to plant in sunny and warm weather.
- Preferred ginger
- In the previous year, the ginger should be selected from the plots that are robust, disease-free, and productive. After harvesting, choose ginger, bud head full, uniform size, bright color, no pests, no rot, no damage, unfrozen ginger pieces for ginger storage. Ginger should be germinated before planting. Young shoots are the basis of seedling growth, and breeding strong shoots is the basis for high yields. The morphological characteristics of the strong buds are that the buds are thick and sturdy at the top; the morphological characteristics of the weak buds are that the buds are thin and the buds are fine. 
- Cultivate strong buds
- (1) Sunburn ginger
- About 1 month before sowing, choose sunny days, spread the ginger on the outdoor ground for 1-2 days, and collect the indoor frost at night. Through sun-breeding, it can increase the temperature of ginger, break the dormancy, promote germination, and reduce the moisture in the ginger to prevent decay. After 1-2 days of drying, put the ginger in the room for 3-4 days, cover the ginger on the heap of ginger, and carry out the ginger to promote the decomposition of nutrients in the ginger. After 2-3 times of repeated sunburn and ginger, you can germination. Ginger is susceptible to severe diseases such as ginger carp and anthracnose. Therefore, in the process of sunburning ginger, the ginger species that are dry, thin, soft, and brown in flesh should be strictly eliminated. 
- (2) germination
- There are many methods for germination, such as fire germination, greenhouse germination and so on.
- Earthworm germination: It is to use the soil bandits in the countryside to germination. First, lay a layer of wheat straw on the raft, about 10 cm thick, and then 2-3 layers of paper on the wheat straw, and place the ginger layer on the paper layer by layer. Stacking thickness 60-80 cm. After the ginger is arranged, let it dissipate heat, then lay a layer of grass 10 cm thick, and the top layer is covered with cotton quilts. The germination temperature can be adjusted by heating or uncovering the cover.
- Greenhouse germination: first lay 3-5 layers of paper around the basket, put the ginger heads one by one in the basket, stack 3-4 layers, then cover 3-4 layers of paper, put the basket Put it in the greenhouse and keep it warm and germination.
- Regardless of the germination method used, the temperature should be between 22-25 °C. The temperature exceeds 28 ° C, although the germination is rapid, but the buds are thin and long; the temperature is lower than 20 ° C, although the buds are thick, but the germination time is long, affecting the sowing. Generally, when the ginger bud grows to 0.5 cm -1 cm, it can be graded according to the size of the ginger bud and planted in batches. 
- Before sowing, the ginger that has been germinated is smashed into small pieces of 75-100 grams, and one obese shoot is kept on each seed. In combination with the ginger seed, a selective seed bud should be carried out to remove the ginger that is black at the base of the bud or browned at the ginger section.
- Water bottoming
- Ginger emergence is very slow, soil water shortage will affect the emergence of seedlings, so it is necessary to pour the bottom of the water, generally no watering before emergence.
- Glowing ginger
- After the bottom water is infiltrated, the ginger species can be discharged. There are two types of flat broadcasting and vertical broadcasting. In the case of flat sowing, place the seed horizontally in the ditch to keep the direction of the young shoots consistent; when sowing, the seed buds are all sown upwards.
- Covering soil
- With sowing, cover the ginger buds and ginger with the fine soil, and cover the soil 4 cm -5 cm thick after the sowing. The cover soil is too thick, the ground temperature is low, and the germination is slow; if the cover soil is too thin, the topsoil is easy to dry and affects emergence.
- Sowing amount
- The amount of seed per acre is 400 kg - 500 kg. The larger the ginger, the earlier the emergence of the seedlings, the stronger the seedlings and the higher the yield. Therefore, the seed should be as large as possible.
- Seeding density
- Generally, about 5, 500 seedlings per mu are protected. 
- Cultivating weeding
- Ginger is a shallow root crop, and the root system is mainly distributed on the surface layer of the soil. Therefore, it is not suitable for multiple tillage to avoid root damage. Usually combined with watering after emergence, cultivating 1-2 times, and timely removal of weeds. In the prosperous growth period, the plants gradually seal the ridges, the amount of weeds is reduced, and weeding can be carried out by manual extraction. Non-polluted ginger production, it is best not to use weeds to control weeds, can be covered with black plastic film, or cover the white film and then cover a layer of thin soil to prevent weeds. 
- Ginger is not drought-tolerant, and the root system is shallow. Water should be properly watered to ensure normal plant growth. It is generally not watered before emergence. Although the water needs not much in the seedling stage, but the root system has weak absorption, it should be poured in small water, and then ploughed and protected after pouring. Watering in the summer can reduce the ground temperature, watering in the morning and evening is good, and too much water in the field should be drained in time. After the autumn, the ginger enters the vigorous growth period, and the water demand increases. The sufficient supply of water should be ensured, and the relative humidity of the soil should be kept at 75%-80%. The last water is poured 3 days before the harvest, so that the ginger can be wet with mud when harvesting, which is good for storage. 
- Topdressing and cultivating
- Ginger is extremely resistant to fertilizer. In addition to applying enough base fertilizer, it should be topdressed several times. In order to promote the growth of seedlings in the seedling stage, it is necessary to chase a “strong seedling fertilizer”, and apply 1000 kg of manure and excrement per acre with water, or 10 kg of urea. Before and after the beginning of the autumn, Jiang Miao is in the stage of “three-strand sputum”, which is the turning point of growth, and also the turning point of the change of fertilizer amount. It should be applied to “transfer fertilizer”, which can apply 1000 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer per mu, and cooperate with the application of three Yuan compound fertilizer 15-20 kg. Before and after the beginning of September, the roots of ginger entered a prosperous growth period, in order to promote the expansion of ginger, prevent premature aging, chase a "supplement of fertilizer", apply 30 kg of ternary compound fertilizer per mu.
- The roots of ginger grow in the soil, requiring darkness and humidity, and need to be soiled. Generally, after the autumn, combined with weeding and fertilization, the soil is 2-3 times, and the seeding ditch is gradually turned into a ridge to prevent the roots from being exposed to the surface. 
- Ginger is not cold-tolerant and is usually harvested before the arrival of the first cream in the middle and late October. After harvesting, the ground stem (retaining 2 cm - 3 cm stem) is removed from the base of the stem, and no drying is required. 
- Different from other vegetables, ginger can be divided into three methods: tender ginger harvesting, ginger harvesting and ginger harvesting:
- (1) Harvesting tender ginger can be used as an early supply market for fresh vegetables. Harvesting begins in early August. The early harvested ginger pieces are tender and tender, light in spicy taste, and have a large water content. They are not resistant to storage. They should be used as pickled kimchi or make bad chilli sauce. The taste is delicious, and it is very popular in the market and has good economic benefits.
- (2) Harvesting of ginger is generally carried out in the middle to late October to November. The aboveground plants of the ginger began to be yellow, and the rhizomes were fully inflated and harvested. At this time, the yield of ginger is high, the taste is heavy, and it is resistant to storage and transportation. It is good for seasoning or processing dried ginger. However, harvesting must be done before frost to prevent freezing and decay. The harvest should be completed on a sunny day, the plants should be cut off, and the ginger pieces should be dug to minimize the damage.
- (3) Harvesting of ginger is generally carried out in the middle and late June when there are 4-5 leaves in the ground plants. Carefully remove the soil from the rhizosphere of the plant during harvesting, remove the ginger and cover the roots with soil. If the late root injury is harvested, the plant growth will be affected. 
- For the ginger that is used for seeding, it is best to plant it in the field for cultivation, and apply potassium fertilizer (grass ash, etc.) during the growing period, and apply less nitrogen fertilizer (such as urea). Drying for several days during harvesting, reduce the moisture of the seed for storage. In the production of Daejeon, it is also possible to select ginger which is robust, ginger-filled, free of pests and diseases, and not damaged. After drying, it is stored for seeding. 
- The diseases that often occur in ginger production and cause heavy production losses are mainly ginger rot, leaf blight, spot disease, anthracnose, etc. The main pests are ginger mites. 
- Also known as rot disease or bacterial wilt, it is the most common devastating disease in ginger production and is common in all regions. The onset of the plot generally reduces production by 10%-20%, and the severely reduced production by more than 50%, and even the production. The disease is a bacterial disease, mainly harmful to underground stems or roots. Generally, the underground stems close to the ground are infected first. The fleshy stem is damaged, and it is water-stained, yellow-brown and dull. After the internal tissue is gradually rotted, only the skin is left, and the squeezing disease can flow out the white, rice-water, and foul-smelling juice. The roots are ill, initially water-stained, and then yellow-brown, eventually rot. The stems on the ground are dark brown, and the internal tissues are rotted, leaving only fibers. The leaves were wilted, the leaves were yellowish and the edges curled until the whole plant sagged.
- The prevention method is:
- (1) Agricultural measures: Retaining seeds from selected disease-free fields or selecting ginger species; the pathogens of ginger and sorghum can survive in the soil for more than 2 years, and rotation is an important way to cut off the disease of the soil. It takes more than 3 years to grow ginger, and the former scorpion should be the best for new glutinous rice or food crops or onion and garlic. The plant has been planted with tomato, eggplant, pepper, potato and other solanaceous crops, especially those with green blight in the front, and it is not suitable to grow ginger.
- (2) Ginger disinfection: soaking with 72% agricultural streptomycin soluble powder 4000 times solution or neomycin oxytetracycline 4000-5000 times solution for 48 hours.
- (3) Chemical control: After the emergence of the central diseased plant, use 72% agricultural streptomycin soluble powder 4000 times solution, or 47% ruinong soluble powder 750 times solution or 50% dexamethasone 1000 times solution to fill the roots, 250ml per plant., once every 10-15 days, 3-4 times in a row. 
- Ginger leaf blight is a fungal disease, mainly harmful to the leaves. The primary yellow-brown lesions on the diseased leaves gradually spread to the whole leaf, and the diseased parts produce black small grain spots. In severe cases, the whole leaves become brown and die.
- The prevention method is:
- (1) Agricultural measures: Rotation with grass or non-solanaceae crops for more than 3 years; application of fully decomposed organic fertilizer.
- (2) Chemical control: At the beginning of the disease, the ginger strain is sprayed with 75% chlorothalonil WP 600 times or 1:1:200 Bole multi-liquid, once every 7-10 days, 2-3 times in succession. 
- Ginger spot blight is a fungal disease, mainly harmful to leaves, leaf spot yellow-white, prismatic or oblong, 2-5 mm long, thin at the middle of the spot, easy to rupture or perforation. In severe cases, the lesions are densely covered, and the whole leaf is like a star, so it is also known as white star disease.
- The prevention method is:
- (1) Agricultural measures: Avoid continuous cropping and partial application of nitrogen fertilizer, pay attention to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer and decomposed organic fertilizer.
- (2) Chemical control: In the initial stage of the disease, timely spray 50% compound thiophanate WP 1000 times liquid or 75% chlorothalonil WP 600 times, once every 7-10 days, 2-3 times in a row. 
- Ginger anthracnose is also a fungal disease. It is a disease-causing disease. It has lesions from the tip or leaf edge. It is initially a water-stained brown spot, and then extends downward or inward to expand the ellipse or prism to the amorphous brown spot. The moiré is obviously or not obvious. Several lesions were combined with synthetic plaques, and the leaves became brown and dry. When wet, the spots appear small black spots.
- The prevention method is:
- (1) Agricultural measures: Avoid continuous cropping and partial application of nitrogen fertilizer, pay attention to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer and decomposed organic fertilizer. When collecting ginger, thoroughly remove the diseased debris.
- (2) Chemical control: In the early stage of the disease, timely spray 50% compound thiophanate-wet WP 1000 times, or 80% anthrax Fame WP 800 times, once every 10-15 days, 2-3 times in a row. 
- Ginger (corn glutinous rice) is also called borer worm, its feeding habit is very mixed, the larvae are the main damage to the tender stems, and can also be transferred to the plant.
- The prevention and treatment method is: spraying with 52.25% agricultural land emulsifiable concentrate or 4.5% beta-cypermethrin emulsifiable oil 1500-2000 times liquid, or 10% Uranus emulsifiable oil 1000 times solution, once every 10 days, continuously 2-3 times. 
- Ginger is a kind of economic crop with great development and utilization value. Besides containing physiological active substances such as zingerone and gingerol, it also contains protein, polysaccharide, vitamin and various trace elements. It is a combination of nutrition, seasoning and health care. It is regarded by medical scientists as a health care product with the same medicine and food. It has many health functions such as cold, dampness, warm stomach and accelerated blood circulation. Ginger products are becoming more and more popular in the international market, especially in Southeast Asia, Japan and other countries and regions, and can generate a large amount of foreign exchange for the country every year. 
- In China, the history of consumption and medicinal use of ginger is very long. The development and utilization of ginger is relatively early. The main products are ginger, sweet ginger, ginger sauce, ginger juice, etc. The products are of low grade and limited sales. In order to make full and reasonable use of precious fresh ginger resources, through development and utilization, not only can each part be fully utilized, but also obtain high value-added products and obtain higher value-added effects. At the same time, the following four products are extracted from ginger: concentrated ginger milk, transparent raw ginger juice health drink, ginger starch, and finally the residue is comprehensively utilized to make ginger and spicy sauce. The first two of the above four products are high-end, high value-added products. 
- 1. seasoning ginger milk
- Seasoned ginger milk is extracted from the seasoning essence of ginger and concentrated. It looks like egg-yellow cream and is creamy. It is very convenient to use and has a strong flavoring effect. It can be used in high-end restaurants. As a seasoning, you can put it in a little bit in the seasoning soup, especially for the seafood banquet. 
- 2. Ginger juice health drink
- The beverage does not contain any chemically synthetic substances, its flavor has a hint of coke, and it is very comfortable after the entrance. It is especially suitable for drinking in high temperature areas and field workers, and has a wide market in the north. In the south, spring, summer and autumn, the rain is constant. The human body is too humid and easy to get sick. Although drinking this type of drink is not necessary for cold, it has dehumidification effect. Medically, it is reasonable to pay attention to “winter eating radish and eating ginger in summer”. Especially worth mentioning is that many Chinese medicine experts believe that drinking this drink can stimulate the blood circulation, promote blood circulation, fully open the pores, quickly relieve fatigue, drink after drinking, have a relaxed feeling, and keep the mind clear. Ginger juice drink can be used as a special drink for car drivers. Therefore, the future prospects of ginger juice beverages will be extremely broad. In the past, there was a ginger drink on the market, mainly a ginger-flavored synthetic beverage blended with ginger flavor. The original ginger juice transparent drink without chemical composition is still in the market. 
- 3. Ginger starch and ginger sauce
- The products obtained from the comprehensive utilization of ginger starch and ginger savory sauce as by-products are not high value-added products, but only developed to reduce costs and eliminate pollution from three wastes. If there are conditions, it is possible to develop plant edible fiber that is prevalent in the world, and its prospects are better. 
- (1) Helping Yang
- Chinese medicine believes that ginger is the product of helping the yang, so since ancient times, traditional Chinese medicine has been known as "the man can not be a hundred days without ginger." Ginger has the function of accelerating the metabolism of the human body and passing through the meridians. Therefore, ginger is often used in male health care, which can play a role in helping the yang, and also has a certain therapeutic effect on kidney deficiency and impotence. If men often feel stomach cold and loss of appetite, they can often take fresh ginger tablets to stimulate the secretion of gastric juice and promote digestion. Dry ginger warms the cold, strengthens the stomach and promotes blood circulation, and the scorpion nourishes the liver and kidney, and benefits the eyesight. With the consumption, it can treat impotence caused by kidney yang deficiency, cold and cold limbs, backache, waist and knees, and burnout. 
- (2) Postpartum
- When a postpartum woman is confined, the meal is served with ginger vinegar, which is good for restoring and feeding the baby. In addition, ginger water bath can also prevent rheumatism and headache. In particular, the practice of maternal confinement does not wash your head and bathe. It is very unscientific. It does not wash your hair in the hot summer months. It is not unsanitary, and may cause skin irritation and long lice. Maternal women can try to wash their hair with ginger slices, wash their hands and even wash their hands, because ginger can be used to drive off the cold, bathing with ginger and water, can prevent rheumatism and migraine. 
- (3) Anti-gastric disease
- Increase appetite and stomach disease Whether it is steamed fish for cooking or seasoning, ginger is definitely a table, its spicy taste can go to the fish, except for the smell, the soup and ginger can also be cold and medium, the taste is fragrant. Folk songs have the saying that "the rice is not fragrant and eats ginger", that is to say, eating a few pieces of ginger or putting a little ginger in the dish when eating is not good or the amount of rice is reduced can improve the appetite and increase the amount of rice. Gastric ulcer, debilitating gastritis, enteritis and cold and cold can also be used to make ginger to dispel cold and sweat, warm stomach and stop vomiting, sterilization and analgesia. Ginger is also a traditional Chinese medicine for treating nausea and vomiting. In summer, especially in the volts, bacteria growth and reproduction is very active, easy to contaminate food and cause acute gastroenteritis, but proper consumption of ginger can play a preventive role, ginger also kills oral pathogens and intestinal pathogenic bacteria. effect. In summer, people are so greedy, and they love to blow air conditioners. It is easy to be affected by the wind and cold, causing colds and colds. At this time, drink ginger sugar water in time, which will help expel the body from cold. Chinese medicine believes that ginger can "pass the gods", that is, refreshing, so people who often have dizziness, palpitations and chest tightness at this time, it is beneficial to drink ginger soup properly. In addition, ginger Xin Wen, has the effect of promoting blood circulation, women can eat ginger can also anti-aging, reduce the occurrence of gallstones. 
- 2. Edible taboos
- (1) Precautions
- The ancients said: "It is better to eat ginger in the morning than to eat ginseng soup; to eat ginger at night is equal to eating arsenic." Ginger can enhance and accelerate blood circulation, stimulate gastric secretion, stimulate the stomach, promote digestion, and have antibacterial effects. Eating a little ginger in the morning is good for your health. But eat at night, because the ginger is originally hot, it will make people get angry, and hurt their lives, so it is not appropriate to eat.
- Ginger also contains gingerol, which can reduce the occurrence of gallstones. However, it has both advantages and disadvantages. The folks have therefore left a saying that "going to bed with radish and getting out of bed" means that ginger can be eaten, but not enough. Especially in the fall, it is best not to eat, because the autumn climate is dry, dry and hurt the lungs, plus eating spicy ginger, it is more likely to hurt the lungs, increase the body's water loss, dryness. In the ancient medical books, there was also such a "warning": "In a year, the autumn does not eat ginger; within one day, the night does not eat ginger." It seems that the fall does not eat or eat less ginger and other spicy food, already It is very reasonable to arouse the attention of the ancients. "Winter eating radish and eating ginger in summer, no need for doctors to prescribe prescriptions", "home preparation of ginger, small illnesses are not panic", "to eat ginger in summer, Yishou security and health", "four seasons to eat ginger, all diseases are swept away", Many folk songs such as “Eating three gingers earlier than ginseng soup” reflect the health benefits of ginger, and since ancient times, Chinese medicine has also said that “Ginger cures all diseases”. Chinese medicine pays attention to eating radish in winter and eating ginger. Ginger has the effects of excitement, perspiration, cooling and refreshing during hot weather. It can relieve fatigue, fatigue, anorexia, insomnia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain and other symptoms. Ginger has the effect of strengthening stomach and appetite. 
- (2) Carcinogenic
- Rotating ginger produces toxins that can cause cancer. Some people think that "rotten ginger is not rotten". This idea is not scientifically based and dangerous. Because rotten ginger produces toxins, which can lead to liver cancer and esophageal cancer. Although eating ginger in summer is good for the human body, it should be moderate. Because the weather is hot, people are prone to dry mouth, polydipsia, sore throat, and sweat. Ginger is warm and hot, according to the "hot person" In principle, it is not advisable to eat more. Just put a few slices of ginger when cooking or making soup. 
- (3) Suitable people
- Suitable for majority of the people.
- 1 suitable for colds, cold dysmenorrhea, motion sickness and seasickness.
- 2 yin deficiency heat and evil heat can be eaten less.
- 3 people with cold constitution can eat a lot.
- (4) Edible taboos
- Ginger is warm and not suitable for eating too much at one time. It is not suitable for patients with sore swollen sputum, red eyes, constipation and hemorrhoids. Rotten ginger contains safrole, which can degeneration and necrosis of liver cells, induce liver cancer, esophageal cancer, etc., and should not be eaten. Patients with acne should not be eaten. 
- 1 yin physique person. Yin deficiency is a hot and dry constitution, which is characterized by heat in the hands and feet, sweating in the palms, drinking water, frequent dry mouth, dry eyes, dry nose, dry skin, upset and irritability, and poor sleep, while ginger is warm, people with yin deficiency eat ginger. Will increase the symptoms of yin deficiency.
- 2 The internal heat is heavier. Such as suffering from lung heat dry cough, stomach heat vomiting, bad breath, hemorrhoids bleeding, sore ulcers and other diseases should not eat ginger. If it is a heat disorder, it is necessary to use the cold medicine to neutralize the heat of ginger when eating ginger.
- 3 hepatitis patients. Because eating ginger often causes liver. Liver is booming. If you want to restrain the liver fire caused by eating ginger, you can choose some foods that can soothe the liver and qi, such as using hawthorn and chrysanthemum bubble tea, so that you can eliminate the heat caused by ginger without hurting the body. 
- 3. Therapeutic effect
- Jujube ginger soup:
- Jujube is sweet and warm, has the effect of replenishing vital energy, nourishing blood and soothe the nerves, can promote the circulation of blood and blood, and improve the symptoms of cold hands and feet. In addition, ginger replenishing warmth and jujube weights are also very effective for stomach patients.
- Practice: 10 jujubes, 5 slices of ginger, appropriate amount of brown sugar, decoction on behalf of tea, 1 time a day, adhere to take. 
- Brown sugar ginger soup
- Brown sugar has the function of nourishing blood and promoting blood circulation. It often has the effect of drinking brown sugar ginger soup. Ginger brown sugar water is also suitable for the adjuvant treatment of cold or cold after the rain.
- Practice: 5 slices of ginger, the amount of brown sugar, ginger flakes soup with brown sugar seasoning, on behalf of tea, 1 time a day, adhere to take. 
- Green Tea Ginger Soup:
- Green tea ginger soup has the effect of clearing away heat and detoxifying, replenishing Qi and relieving heat and preventing heatstroke.
- Practice: Take 5 grams of green tea and ginger, and drink with boiling water for about 10 minutes. It is especially suitable for drinking during the summer, and it has the effect of clearing heat and relaxing. 
- Salt and vinegar ginger soup:
- Many people in summer are prone to "air conditioning disease", shoulders and back will suffer from wind, cold, wet and other diseases, especially the elderly are prone to recurrent shoulder inflammation.
- In this case, you can pick up some hot ginger soup, first add a little salt and vinegar to the hot ginger soup, then wring it with a towel soaked in water, apply it to the affected area, and repeat it several times to make the muscles change from relaxation to relaxation., greatly relieve pain. You can also apply hot ginger soup made from a towel to the sore throat. 
- Ginger Coke:
- It has the effect of preventing cold and phlegm, increasing calories, warming the stomach, and has a good effect on preventing and treating colds.
- Practice: Put 3 pieces of ginger in 300 ml of cola, cook it immediately after boiling or close to open, and drink it. 
- 4. Dietary nutrition
- Nutritional ingredients: protein, multivitamins, carotene, calcium, iron, phosphorus, etc.
- Each 100 grams of edible portion contains:
|Heat (kcal):||19||B1 thiamine (mg):||0||Ca calcium (mg):||9|
|Protein (g):||.7||B2 riboflavin (mg):||.01||M grams of magnesium (mg):||Twenty four|
|Fat (g):||.6||B5 niacin (mg):||.3||Fe iron (mg):||.8|
|Carbohydrates (g):||2.8||VC vitamin C (mg):||2||Mn manganese (mg):||3.38|
|Dietary fiber (g):||.9||VE Vitamin E (mg):||0||Zn zinc (mg):||.17|
|Vitamin A (micrograms):||0||Cholesterol (mg):||0||Cu copper (mg):||.03|
|Carotene (microgram):||.5||K potassium (mg):||160||P phosphorus (mg):||11|
|Retinol equivalent (micrograms):||94.5||Na sodium (mg):||1.9||Se selenium (microgram):||.1|
- 5. Therapeutic effect
- Ginger is spicy and mild, and it enters the spleen, stomach and lung. Has a sweating solution, warming vomiting, warming the lungs and relieving cough, detoxification. Indications for external cold, stomach cold vomiting, cold cough, abdominal pain, diarrhea, Chinese fish and crab poison and other diseases. There is also the effect of waking up the stomach and increasing the appetite. 
- Ginger contains spicy and aromatic ingredients, including zingerone, gingerol, starch and fiber. It is used for colds and colds, and it can be used to relieve cold and evil. Gingerol has a stimulating effect on the oral cavity and gastric mucosa, can promote the secretion of digestive juice, increase appetite, and increase intestinal tension, rhythm and peristalsis. Gingerone has an excitatory effect on the respiratory and vascular centers and promotes blood circulation. 
- 6. Improve sleep
- Ginger-like condiments in the kitchen can be very helpful in treating insomnia. Because the special smell of ginger has the effect of calming the nerves.
- The specific method is: chopped about 15 grams of ginger, wrapped in gauze on the side of the pillow, smelling its aromatic smell, you can sleep peacefully. After 10 days to 1 month of continuous use, sleep will be significantly improved. 
- 7. Reasons for summer consumption
- (1) Antioxidant, inhibit tumor
- The structure of gingerol and diphenylheptane compounds contained in ginger has strong anti-oxidation and scavenging free radical action; inhibits tumor function; eating ginger can resist aging, and the elderly often eat ginger in addition to "old age spots" . 
- In the hot summer, because the human saliva and gastric juice secretion will be reduced, thus affecting appetite, if you eat a few slices of ginger before meals, it can stimulate the secretion of saliva, gastric juice and digestive juice, increase gastrointestinal motility and increase appetite. This is what people often say "winter to eat radish, eat ginger in summer", "the rice is not fragrant, eat ginger". 
- (3) Heatstroke prevention, cooling, refreshing
- In the hot, there is excitement, sweating and cooling, refreshing effect. For patients with general heat and dizziness, palpitations, chest tightness and nausea, it is beneficial to drink ginger soup properly. Chinese traditional heatstroke-preventing Chinese medicine - Ren Dan contains ginger ingredients, its role is to stomach, refreshing, and refreshing. 
- (4) sterilization and detoxification
- Scientific research has found that ginger can play a role in certain antibiotics, especially for Salmonella. In the hot summer, food is easily contaminated by bacteria, and it grows fast and breeds easily, causing acute gastroenteritis. Eating ginger in moderation can play a preventive role. Ginger extract has the effect of significantly inhibiting skin fungus and killing vaginal trichomoniasis, and can treat various swollen sores. In addition, ginger water can be used to treat bad breath and periodontitis. 
- (5) Anti-motion sickness, stop nausea and vomiting
- Refers to "sports maladaptive syndrome" caused by certain sports. Studies have shown that ginger dry powder has an effective rate of 90% for headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms of sports disease, and the efficacy can last for more than 4 hours. Folks use ginger to prevent motion sickness, seasickness, or sticking to Neiguan, which has obvious effects and therefore has the reputation of “vomiting holy medicine”. 
- 8. Cooking instructions
- (1) If you eat a few pieces of ginger when you are not fragrant or when you eat less, or put a little ginger on the fruit, you can improve your appetite and increase your appetite. So the saying goes: "The rice is not fragrant, eat ginger."
- (2) Jiang can decoction orally, seasoning, stir-fry into the dish, or slice the acupoints. Ginger can be used as seasoning or ingredient; tender ginger can be used for frying, mixing, blasting, etc., such as "sweet ginger fried beef wire", "gentle ginger burst duck" and so on.
- (3) It is not advisable to eat ginger once, so as not to absorb a large amount of gingerol, which will stimulate the kidney during excretion by the kidney, and cause symptoms such as dry mouth, sore throat and constipation.
- (4) Rotten ginger and frozen ginger should not be eaten, because ginger will produce carcinogens after deterioration. Because ginger is warm and has a solution effect, it can only be used as a therapeutic application in cold conditions.
- Cooking use: Ginger is an important seasoning because it tastes spicy and only scatters the odor of the food, and does not mix the food into a spicy taste. It should be used as a taste of leeks and also used in cake making, such as gingerbread., ginger sugar, etc.
- 9. Life tips
- (1) Go to the door of Jiangpi
- The shape of the ginger is not flat and the volume is small. It is very troublesome to eliminate the ginger skin. It is quick and convenient to use the teeth around the beer bottle to cut the ginger skin.
- (2) Ginger quality requirements
- It is clean and free of dirt, hair roots, no rotten, no stagnation, insect damage, no heat and freezing. Ginger is heated, white hair, skin becomes red, easy to rotten; when frozen, the skin is soft, the skin peels off, and the hand squeezes the ginger juice.
- Ginger can make people less sick. In summer, it is less because of the heat, the bacteria are killed. Ginger is a natural heat source. It improves the body and makes people less sick. As long as they are sick, they can use ginger. The body is hot and the resistance is strong. It is.
- 10. Health and beauty
- (1) Jiang Si reminds people to go to sleep early
- The method is: take a large piece of fresh ginger before going to bed every day, wash it, cut it into filaments, put it into an uncovered small box, and then put it on the pillow. After lying down, the ginger silk is fragrant and fragrant on the pillow, and gradually transforms into a sense of comfort in the brain. The tightness of the mind will soon relax, and then it will fall asleep. The next day, you can use the dried ginger silk and dry it up. When you use hot water to brew it together with the red dates, add some honey to drink, which is a kind of health drink. 
- (2) ginger tablets for constipation
- The method is: after washing a whole new brick and drying it, put it on the gas stove, slowly heat it with a simmer, and then put the cut ginger on the surface of the brick, spread it up, and then in the ginger. One layer of clean gauze on the upper cover, after closing the fire, wear gloves to move it to the toilet lid, of course, there must be bedding at the bottom. Then sit on it for 15-20 minutes twice a day. 
- (3) ginger block treatment of pharyngitis
- Because fresh ginger has stronger sterilization effect than garlic, it not only kills many viruses, but also kills some bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics for a long time, which is beneficial to pharyngeal inflammation. 
- 11. Ginger lowers blood sugar
- Animal experiments by Japanese researchers have shown that ginger, the spicy ingredient of ginger, can alleviate blood sugar. Researchers believe that this substance may have the same effect on people. According to Japanese media reports, researchers from the China Four Agricultural Research Center in China recently fed zingerol to rats for 19 consecutive days at a dose of 50 mg of zingerol per 1 kg of body weight. The researchers then continued to administer glucose to these rats at a dose of 2 grams of glucose per kilogram of body weight. Measurements after 1 hour showed that the average rise in blood glucose of these rats was 147.3 mg/dl. The study also found that control rats with no ketol and only glucose were given an average blood glucose rise of 228.4 mg/dl. According to the researchers' analysis, zingerol can promote the increase of fat cells, and the fat cells can inhale the glucose component in the blood, thereby reducing the blood sugar level. Guan Gujing, an expert at the research center, said that if further research confirms that zingerol can exert the same effect on people, it may open up new avenues for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. 
- Modern pharmacological research shows that ginger has antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation and anti-aging effects, and its unique "Gingeringin" can effectively treat abdominal distension, abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting caused by overeating cold food. In addition, ginger can increase appetite and promote the secretion of digestive juice; gingerol in ginger also has a strong choleretic effect. 
- The base of the medicinal material: the fresh rhizome of ginger in the ginger family. 
- (sexual taste)
- Wei Xin; temperature. 
- Return to the lungs, stomach, spleen. 
- (function attending)
- Dissolve the cold, stop the vomiting, warm the lung and relieve cough. Commonly used for spleen and stomach deficiency, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, or vomiting and vomiting, vomiting of stomach discomfort, cold or cold cough, cold, cold, hot air, nasal congestion headache. It can also detoxify Pinellia, Shengnanxing and other drug poisoning, as well as food poisoning such as fish and crab. 
- Ginger can be taken orally or simmered in the juice, or applied externally. Apply it to the affected area. 
- The yin deficiency heat and heat syndrome are forbidden. 
- 2. Dried ginger 
- Dried ginger, the dried rhizome of ginger in the ginger family. In winter, the roots and sediment are removed, and the ginger is dried or dried to be dried ginger. 
- (sexual taste)
- Spicy, hot. 
- Return to the spleen, stomach, kidney, heart, lung. 
- (function attending)
- Warm and cold, return to the Yang Tongmai, dampness and eliminate phlegm. For abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, cold limbs, phlegm and asthma. Dried ginger can lead blood into the blood, gas into the gas, and can go to the evil new, there is a sense of yang and yin, so people with blood deficiency can use, but vomiting blood, blood stasis, blood, etc. Should be used. 
- Oral decoction, the usual amount is 1.5-4.5 grams, can also be used for external use. 
- Those who are yin deficiency and heat, blood and blood are not allowed to take it; pregnant women are cautious. 
- The main components of the volatile oil contained in the rhizome are gingerol (Zingiberol, C 15 H 26 O), zingiberene (Zingiberene, C 15 H 24 ), terpene, water anisene, borneol, furfural and oil. In addition, it also contains Gingerol, an oily spicy ingredient (Shogaol, C 17 H 24 O 3 ) and a crystalline spicy ingredient, Zingerone (C 11 H 14 O 3 ). 
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