Black tea

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Black tea logo
Title Info
English name Black tea
Chinese name 红茶
Boundary Plant kingdom
Door Quilt
Outline Dicotyledon
Subclass Original flower
Head Camellia
Branch Camellia
Distribution area East Africa, China, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia
Origin Wuyishan Tea Area, Fujian, China
English Black tea
Tea Full fermentation
Variety Gongfu black tea, small black tea, red broken tea
Place of origin Anhui, Sichuan, Yunnan, Fujian, Hunan, etc.

Black tea[edit]

  • Black tea (a category of tea).
  • Black tea, English is Black tea. During the processing of black tea, the chemical reaction centered on tea polyphenols enzymatic oxidation occurred. The chemical composition of fresh leaves changed greatly, and the tea polyphenols decreased by more than 90%, resulting in new components such as theaflavins and thearubigins. Aroma substances are significantly increased compared to fresh leaves. Therefore, black tea has the characteristics of black tea, red soup, red leaves and sweet alcohol. The black tea variety in China is most famous as the black tea of Tuen Mun, and it is the second largest tea in China.
  • Black tea is a whole fermented tea, which is made from a suitable tea tree new tooth leaf as raw material, and is refined by a series of processes such as withering, cutting (cutting), fermentation and drying. Withering is an important process for the initial production of black tea. Black tea is called “black tea” in the initial system. Black tea is named after the tea soup and the bottom color of the tea after its dry tea brewing. Chinese black tea varieties mainly include: Rizhao black tea, [1] Blush, Zhaopinghong, Huohong, Qihong, Yuehong, Quanchenghong, Quanchenglu, Suhong, Chuanhong, Yinghong, Dongjiang Chuyunxian black tea, etc., especially the Tuen Mun black tea is the most famous, in 2013 Dongjiang Chu Yunxian Black Tea won the special prize of “China Tea Cup”. [2]

Historical evolution[edit]

  • Black tea 1 - Black tea.jpg
    The originator of black tea is in China. The earliest black tea in the world was invented by the tea farmers in the Wuyishan tea area of Fujian during the Ming Dynasty in China, and it was named “Zhengshan Small Species”. The Jiang family of Tongmu Village in Wuyishan City is a tea family that produces Zhengshan small black tea. It has a history of more than 400 years.
  • Zhengshan small black tea entered Europe in 1610. In 1662, when Princess Catherine of Portugal married Emperor Charles II, there were several boxes of Chinese Zhengshan small black tea in her dowry. Since then, black tea has been brought into the British court, drinking black tea quickly became an indispensable part of the British royal family life. In the early London tea market, only the Zhengshan small black tea was sold, and the price was extremely expensive. Only the rich and powerful rooms could drink. Zhengshan small black tea became an indispensable beverage for the British upper class. The British loved black tea and gradually evolved drinking black tea into a noble and gorgeous black tea culture and promoted it to the whole world. [3]
  • Lychee black tea
    In 1689, the United Kingdom set up a base in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, and acquired a large amount of Chinese tea. Drinking black tea in the UK is more than drinking green tea, and it has developed its unique black tea culture, which is related to the above historical events. Because the teas purchased in Xiamen are semi-fermented teas belonging to black tea - "Wuyi tea", a large number of Wuyi teas have flowed into the UK, replacing the original green tea market, and soon became the mainstream of Western European tea. Wuyi tea is black, so it is called Black tea (literally translated as black tea). Later, tea scientists classified the tea according to the method of making tea and the characteristics of tea. After the brewing of Wuyi tea, the red soup leaves were red, and according to their nature, they belonged to black tea. But the Englishman's customary name Black tea has been followed to refer to black tea.

Distribution area[edit]

  • The main producing areas are in China, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia and Kenya.
  • domestic
  • Wuyishan black tea origin
    The main varieties of Chinese black tea are: blush - produced in Anhui Province, Tuen Mun, Zhide and Jiangxi Fuliang; blush - produced in Yunnan Fohai, Shun Ning and other places; Huo Hong - produced in Anhui Lu'an, Huoshan and other places ; Su Hong - produced in Yixing, Jiangsu; Yuehong is produced in Shaoxing, Zhejiang; Lake Red - produced in Hunan Anhua, Xinhua, Taoyuan, etc.; Chuanhong - produced in Sichuan Mabian, Yibin, Gaoxian and other places; Red – produced in Guangdong Yingde and other places; Zhaopinghong – produced in Zhaoping County, Guangxi; among them, Tuen Mun Black Tea is the most famous. Ning Hong Gongfu is produced in the Xiushui area of Jiangxi Province and is one of the earliest black teas in China. [4]
  • world
  • There are many varieties of black tea in the world, and the production area is also very wide. In addition to China, India, East Africa, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka also have similar red broken tea production.

Cultivation conditions[edit]

  • Black tea cultivation
  • Suitable conditions for the cultivation of tea trees:
  • (1) tropical or subtropical;
  • (2) There is enough precipitation in the season with high temperature;
  • (3) weakly acidic soil;
  • (4) The drainage of the soil is good.
  • In the harvest season, on a dry day, the temperature difference is large enough to be thick or aromatic. [5]

Variety classification[edit]

Classification[edit]

  • ◆Processing classification
  • According to the processing method and the tea shape produced, it can be generally divided into three categories: small black tea, black tea, red broken tea and black tea.
  • Lapsang Souchong
    Small black tea: Small black tea is the oldest black tea, and the originator of other black tea. Other black teas are derived from small black tea. It is divided into Zhengshan small species and outer mountain races, all of which are native to the Wuyishan area.
  • 1. Zhengshan small species: It is produced in the Tongmuguan area of Xingcun Town, Wuyishan City, so it is also called “Xingcun Small Species” or “Tongmuguan Small Species”. [3]
  • 2. Outer Mountain Race: It is mainly produced in Zhenghe, Tanyang, Gutian, Shaxian and other places in Fujian. In 2013, the lead mountain area in Jiangxi Province also produced.
  • Red crushed tea : According to its shape, red broken tea can be subdivided into leaf tea, broken tea, sliced tea and end tea. The distribution is widely distributed in Yunnan, Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi, mainly for export.
  • Instant black tea: Instant black tea is a processed product of tea. It can be quickly dissolved in the natural nanotechnology by extracting and concentrating the essence of tea, and then drying it by dry-spraying nano-sized granular solid. A solid drink in the water. Sometimes it is also called black tea, and instant black tea.
  • Mabian Kungfu: Mabian Kungfu is a new black tea, created by Sichuan Jinbian Jinxing Tea Factory. The Sichuan leaflet species with an altitude of 1200-1500 meters is used as raw material, and is combined with the kungfu black tea process.
  • ◆Specification classification
  • Black tea is divided into different specifications according to the position of the tea on the tea tree and the shape of the finished tea:
  • ●Pakoe (P): whit
  • ● Broken Pekoe (BP): Chopped or incomplete white
  • ● Fannings (F): refers to smaller pieces than broken white.
  • ●Small species (Souchong referred to as S): small tea
  • ●Tea powder (Dust referred to as D): tea powder or matcha
  • ● Crush Tear Curl (CTC)

Four varieties[edit]

  • Tuen Mun Black Tea - China
  • Tuen Mun Black Tea, referred to as Blush, is a treasure of Chinese traditional Kung Fu black tea. It is a famous historical tea. It was produced in the late 19th century and is one of the world's three high-scented teas. It has “tea in the hero” and “the most in the group”. "Prince tea" and other reputation. Tuen Mun Black Tea is divided into 1 to 7 grades according to its quality. It is mainly produced in Qimen County, Anhui Province. It is also produced in small quantities in the neighboring Shitai, Dongzhi, Qixian and Guichi counties. It is mainly exported to the UK, the Netherlands and Germany. Japan, Russia and other dozens of countries and regions have been China's state tea for many years. [6]
  • Darjeeling Black Tea - India
  • Darjeeling black tea is produced in the Darjeeling Plateau in the Himalayas in northern West Bengal, India. It is one of the world's four major black teas. Darjeeling black tea is best based on the quality of No. 2 tea from May to June and is known as “Champagne in black tea”. Darjeeling black tea has a high status. The first and third teas in March and April are mostly green OP, and the second tea is a golden exposed FOP. The soup is orange-yellow and has a fragrant and elegant taste. The top grade Darjeeling black tea is especially grape-flavored. It has a delicate and soft taste. It is suitable for spring and autumn drinking. It is also suitable for making milk tea, iced tea and various fancy teas. The craft was carried out by the craftsmen of the Zhengshan race at that time and was transformed.
  • Uba-Sri Lanka
  • Ceylon Highland Black Tea is the most famous Uwo tea. It is produced on the east side of the mountainous region of Sri Lanka and is one of the world's four major black teas. The east side of the mountainous region of Sri Lanka is filled with clouds all the year round. Because the northeast monsoon blown in winter brings more rainfall (November to February), it is not suitable for tea garden production. Therefore, the quality of tea obtained from July to September is the best. On the west side, due to the influence of the southwest monsoon rain in the summer (May-August), the Tingbula tea and Nuwara Eliya tea produced the best from January to March.
  • Assam Black Tea - India
  • Assam black tea, produced in the Assam Valley in the Himalayas of Assam in northeast India. The local sunshine is strong, and another tree is needed to cover the tea trees moderately; due to the abundant rainfall, the Assam big leaf tea trees that promote the tropical nature flourish. The quality of picking from June to July is the best, but the autumn tea produced in October-November is more fragrant. Assam black tea, the shape of the tea is thin and flat, the color is dark brown; the soup is dark red and slightly brown, with a light malt, rose, and strong flavor, is a strong tea. [7]

Value function[edit]

Nutrient content[edit]

  • Black tea is rich in carotene, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, caffeine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid and other nutrients. The chemical reaction of polyphenols in the fermentation process of black tea makes the chemical composition of fresh leaves change greatly, and it produces the components such as theaflavins and thearubigins. The aroma of the black tea is significantly higher than that of the fresh leaves, forming the unique color and fragrance of the black tea., taste.
  • (included per 100 grams)
Ingredient name Content Ingredient name Content Ingredient name Content
Edible department 100 Moisture (g) 7.3 Energy (kcal) 294
Energy (kJ) 1230 Protein (g) 26.7 Fat (g) 1.1
Carbohydrate (g) 59.2 Dietary fiber (g) 14.8 Cholesterol (mg) 0
Ash (g) 5.7 Vitamin A (mg) 645 Carotene (mg) 3870
Retinol (mg) 0 Thiamine (microgram) 0 Riboflavin (mg) 0.17
Nicotic acid (mg) 6.2 Vitamin C (mg) 8 Vitamin E (T) (mg) 5.47
AE 2.8 (β-γ)-E 2.67 δ-E 0
Calcium (mg) 378 Phosphorus (mg) 390 Potassium (mg) 1934
Sodium (mg) 13.6 Magnesium (mg) 183 Iron (mg) 28.1
Zinc (mg) 3.97 Selenium (microgram) 56 Copper (mg) 2.56
Manganese (mg) 49.8 Iodine (mg) 0
Ingredient name Content (mg) Ingredient name Content (mg) Ingredient name Content (mg)
Isoleucine 923 Leucine 1671 Lysine 1381
Sulfur-containing amino acid (T) 436 Methionine 237 Cystine 199
Aromatic amino acid (T) 1700 Phenylalanine 988 Tyrosine 712
Threonine 874 Tryptophan 0 Proline 1213
Arginine 1229 Histidine 470 Alanine 1224
Aspartic acid 2032 Glutamate 3229 Glycine 1051
Proline 828 Serine 948

Main effect[edit]

  • Black tea can help digestion and promote appetite, diuresis, eliminate edema, and strengthen heart function. In black tea, "rich flavonoids can eliminate free radicals and have anti-acidification effect, reducing the incidence of myocardial infarction. Chinese medicine believes that tea is also divided into cold and hot, such as green tea is bitter cold, suitable for summer drink, used for summer heat; black tea, Pu'er Tea is warmer and more suitable for winter drinking. As for oolong tea and Tieguanyin, it is more neutral.
  • Black tea can help regulate blood sugar, but there is still no definitive conclusion. In the winter, the stomach is easy to be uncomfortable. If the melon fruit is too much to feel uncomfortable, you can add black sugar and ginger slices to the black tea. You can drink it slowly and warmly. It has a stomach-raising effect and the body will be more comfortable, but it is not recommended to drink iced black tea.
  • Refreshing
  • black tea
    Caffeine in black tea stimulates the nerve center by stimulating the cerebral cortex, which promotes refreshment and concentration of thoughts, which makes the thinking reaction more acute and memory enhanced. It also has excitatory effects on the vascular system and heart, strengthens the heart beat, and accelerates blood circulation. In order to facilitate metabolism and promote sweating and diuresis, the two-pronged method accelerates the excretion of lactic acid (the substance that makes the muscles feel tired) and other old waste materials in the body to achieve the effect of eliminating fatigue. [8]
  • Shengjin Qingre
  • Drinking black tea in summer can quench thirst and cool down because the polyphenols, sugars, amino acids and pectins in tea react chemically with the mouth, and stimulate the secretion of saliva, causing the mouth to feel moist and produce a refreshing sensation; Control the body temperature center of the hypothalamus, regulate body temperature, it also stimulates the kidney to promote the excretion of heat and dirt, maintaining the physiological balance in the body.
  • Diuretic
  • Under the combined action of caffeine and aromatic substances in black tea, the blood flow of the kidney is increased, the glomerular filtration rate is increased, the renal microvasculature is expanded, and the reabsorption of water by the renal tubule is inhibited, thereby contributing to an increase in urine output. This is beneficial to eliminate lactic acid, uric acid (related to gout), excessive salt (related to high blood pressure), harmful substances, etc., and to alleviate edema caused by heart disease or nephritis.
  • Anti-inflammatory sterilization
  • The polyphenolic compounds in black tea have an anti-inflammatory effect, and it has been found through experiments that catechins can bind to single-cell bacteria to coagulate and precipitate proteins, thereby inhibiting and eliminating pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is beneficial to drink black tea in patients with bacterial dysentery and food poisoning. Folks also use strong tea to apply wounds, hemorrhoids and Hong Kong feet.
  • Detoxification
  • The tea polyalcohol in black tea can absorb heavy metals and alkaloids and precipitate and decompose. This is a boon for modern people who drink water and food industrial pollution.
  • Strong bone
  • On May 13, 2002, the American College of Physicians published a survey of 497 men and 540 women over 10 years, pointing out that people who drink black tea have strong bones, and polyphenols in black tea (also in green tea) have the ability to inhibit the destruction of bone cell material. In order to prevent and treat common osteoporosis in women, it is recommended to take a small cup of black tea every day for a few years. For example, adding lemon to black tea, strong bones, the effect is stronger, can also add a variety of fruits in black tea, can play a synergistic effect. [8]
  • Anti-Aging
  • In the past five years, the US government has funded more than 150 studies on green tea and black tea and its chemical composition. The results show that antioxidants in green tea and black tea can completely destroy the path of chemical substances in cancer cells. Dr. Murray Mitterman, director of cardiovascular epidemiology at Boston Beth Israel Deaconess Medical, said: "The effect of black tea and green tea is roughly the same, but the antioxidants of black tea are much more complicated than green tea, especially for the heart." . American magazines report that black tea has stronger anti-aging effects than garlic head, broccoli and carrots.
  • Nourishing stomach
  • Black tea
    Drinking green tea when people don't eat will feel uncomfortable in the stomach. This is because tea polyphenols, which are important substances in tea, have astringent properties, have a certain stimulating effect on the stomach, and are more irritating in the case of fasting. Strong. Black tea is different. It is fermented and baked. Black tea not only does not hurt the stomach, but can raise the stomach. Regular consumption of black tea with added sugar and milk can reduce inflammation and protect the gastric mucosa, and it also has a certain effect on the treatment of ulcers.
  • Diastolic blood vessel
  • A study in the American medical community is related to black tea. The study found that heart disease patients drink 4 cups of black tea a day, vasodilatation can be increased from 6% to 10%. When the average person is stimulated, the diastolicity will increase by 13%. [8]

Black tea taboo[edit]

  • 1. Patients with stones and patients with cancer. Stone patients are generally not allowed to drink black tea.
  • 2, people with anemia, mental weakness and insomnia. The refreshing effect of black tea will make their symptoms of insomnia worse.
  • 3, people who are usually emotionally sensitive or sensitive, have poor sleep and are weak. Because black tea has a very good refreshing effect.
  • 4, people with stomach heat. Because black tea is a warm tea, it plays a role in warming the stomach.
  • 5, thick tongue, bad breath, easy to acne, red eyes. Black tea is "hot", and people who are afraid of getting angry should not drink black tea.
  • 6. The person who is taking the medicine. Black tea will destroy the efficacy.
  • 7, menstrual women, because the menstrual period will consume a lot of iron in the body, tannic acid in black tea will hinder the body's absorption of iron in food.
  • 8, pregnant women, because the caffeine in black tea will increase the heart and kidney load of pregnant women, will cause the discomfort of pregnant women.
  • 9. Lactating women, because the tannic acid in black tea affects the blood circulation of the breast, it will inhibit the secretion of milk and affect the quality of breastfeeding.
  • 10. Menopausal women, because tea polyphenols in black tea may have a rapid heartbeat and poor sleep quality during menopause.

Quality guide[edit]

Brewing method[edit]

Tea set
  • Set cleaning device
  • Before drinking black tea, no matter what kind of drinking method is used, you must first prepare tea sets, such as pots for boiling water, cups for tea or simmering. At the same time, clean water should be used to clean them one by one to avoid pollution.
  • Measuring tea into the cup
  • Put only 3-5 grams of black tea per cup, or 1-2 bags of tea. If you cook in a pot, add the right amount of tea to the teapot and immediately infuse the boiling water. The water temperature should be maintained at a water temperature of 90 to 100 degrees. At the same time, the teapot and the teacup are burned with hot water. This procedure is called a warm pot (cup).
  • Cooking water and tea
  • After the equivalent tea is in the cup, it is then flushed into boiling water. If it is high-grade black tea, then it is better to use a white porcelain cup to observe its color. Usually flushed until eight minutes. If you cook with a pot, you should first boil the water and then put the tea ingredients.
  • If you use a pot to cook, put the tea leaves, inject hot water, and cover the lid so that the aroma and taste of the black tea can be fully released in the hot water. If the leaves are small, they should be soaked for about 2 to 3 minutes. If the leaves are large, they should be kept for 3 to 5 minutes. When the tea leaves open and sinks to the bottom of the pot, and no longer rolls, you can enjoy it. [9]

Tasting tips[edit]

  • Scented
  • After brewing the black tea, usually after 3 minutes, you can smell the fragrance first, and then observe the soup color of the black tea.
  • Taste and taste
  • When the tea soup is hot and cold, it can be toasted. If the black tea tasted is a strip of tea, it can be brewed 2-3 times. If it is red broken tea, it is usually only brewed once; the second time it is brewed, the taste is thin. [9]
  • Precautions
  • New tea is not as new as possible. It is easy to hurt the stomach due to improper drinking. Since the new tea has just been picked, it has a short storage time and contains many unoxidized polyphenols, aldehydes and alcohols. These substances are suitable for healthy people. There is not much impact, but for patients with poor gastrointestinal function, especially those with chronic gastrointestinal inflammation, these substances will stimulate the gastrointestinal mucosa, and people with poor gastrointestinal function are more likely to induce stomach disease. Therefore, it is not advisable to drink more new teas. Do not drink new teas that are stored for less than half a month.
  • New tea also contains more caffeine, active alkaloids and a variety of aromatic substances, these substances will also make the central nervous system excited, patients with neurasthenia, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease should drink in moderation, and should not be at bedtime Or drink on an empty stomach.
  • Do not use tea to take the medicine; do not drink tea within 1 hour before or after taking the medicine. Ginseng and American ginseng should not be eaten with tea. Avoid drinking strong tea to hangover; do not drink tea before meals; avoid drinking tea immediately after meal; girls avoid drinking strong tea.

Quality review[edit]

  • Review principle
  • “General-purpose tea sensory review” method. The trade evaluation tea should be based on which set of standards the production area belongs to, and the shape and the tenderness of the leaf bottom should be evaluated according to the standard samples, while the aroma, taste and tea color are not based on the sample. Some tea producers do not calibrate the grade, only the tea number or price. When encountering such a tea, you should first look at the big leaf type or the medium and small leaf type, and then refer to the standard grade level. With the level, the concept of quality and price is available.
  • It is not necessary to refer to the standard sample, and the score can be based on the quality of the tea. If the quality inspection department is in the market or at the factory sampling inspection, it must still be based on the corresponding standard samples.
  • Black tea review
  • Red work
  • Blush three big time tea
    The quality of "Blush" is characterized by tight shape, good Miao Feng, black and oily color, bright red soup, rich aroma and sweetness, good taste and sweetness, and the bottom of the leaves is red and soft. Review the "祁红" Maocha and fine tea, and focus on the degree of tenderness and the tightness of the articles on the basis of the standard samples. The body is loose and light, the color is gray, the soup is light and thin (red), the aroma is rough, the taste is thin, and the bottom of the leaves is dark and dark, which is a characteristic of low-order products. In the same season, the blush is good, the color of the spring tea is good, the color is black, the fragrance is soft, and the quality is good. The color of the summer and autumn tea is brighter and brighter, but the fresh alcohol of the fragrance is not as good as the spring tea. Poor than spring tea.
  • Red work
  • The red blush is produced in Yunnan. Its quality characteristics: color brown brown, the shape of fat and strong reveals the golden, the soup color is red, the aroma is rich, the taste is rich and sweet, the leaf bottom is soft, the red is even and bright. "Crimson" tea has a high polyphenol content, and the tea taste is strong and resistant to foaming. After 3 times of brewing, there is also tea flavor. The review of Maocha and Jingcha is based on standard samples, and the emphasis on tenderness is the focus. Tenderness is an objective criterion for the intrinsic quality of blush. On the basis of tenderness, the purity of tea is also very important. The first and second grade teas show the buds and should not contain tea stalks and tablets.
  • Zhaoping Honggongfu
  • "Zhaopinghong" quality characteristics: color, black, gold, revealing, high-spirited, bright red, bright and mellow, sweet and sweet, with red and bright leaves. Specification level [10]
  • Chuanhong Gongfu
  • The shape of the strip is strong and round, showing the golden color, the color is black and oily, the inner aroma is fresh and withered sugar, the taste is mellow and fresh, and the soup is bright. The bottom of the leaf is thick and soft.
  • Red work
  • The collective name of Qihong Gongfu Tea Department and Gongfu, Tanyang Gongfu and Bailin Gongfu are all Fujian specialties.
  • 1 Zhenghe Gongfu: Produced in Fujian Zhenghe, it is divided into two types: big tea and small tea. The big tea is made from Zhenghe Dabai tea, and the small tea is made from small leaf. The politics and work are divided into two types: big tea and small tea. The big tea system is made of Zhenghe Dabai Tea. It is the top grade of the three major blush teas. The shape is tight and firm, and the color is black and lustrous. The inner quality soup is red and rich. The aroma is high and fresh, and the taste is strong. Fat and red. The small tea is made of lobular leaves, and the strips are tight and fragrant like blush, but they are not long-lasting, the soup is slightly shallow, the taste is mellow, and the leaves are red. Politics and time-honored work takes big tea as the main body, and raises its advantages of richness and richness. It is also suitable for the high-scented tea. Therefore, the senior government and the workmanship are particularly well-balanced, and their hearts are revealed and the fragrance is excellent. [11]
  • 2 Tanyang Gongfu: Tanyang Gongfu is widely distributed, mainly producing Fu'an, Rongrong, Shouning, Zhouning, Xiapu and Pingnan in Fujian. The “Guiling Black Tea” between Chaling Village and Chaping Village, which is produced at the junction of Shouning and Zhouning, is the top product in Tanyang.
  • 3 Bai Lin Gongfu: Fuding, which is mainly produced in Fujian, belongs to the small leaf black tea. Bailin Gongfu tea is a small leafy black tea. The general Bailin Gongfu has a slender and curved shape. The velvet has many velvety globules, the color is yellowish black, the inner quality of the soup is light, the aroma is pure and pure, and the taste is fresh. Sweet and, the bottom of the leaves is bright red with yellow.

Processing technology[edit]

Wither[edit]

  • Withering is divided into indoor warming withered and outdoor solar withering. The degree of withering requires that the fresh tip of the leaf loses its luster, the leaf is soft and the infarction is continuous, and the veins are transparent.

揉捻[edit]

  • In the early days of the founding of the People’s Republic of In the 1950s, the iron-wood structure double-cylinder hydraulic tea machine was used. In the 1960s, this process was further improved, using an iron 55-type electric boring machine to improve tea production efficiency. When you want to make the tea juice flow out, the leaves can be rolled into strips.

Fermentation[edit]

  • Fermentation, commonly known as "sweating", is the most important part. It means putting the simmered tea embryo in a basket. After a little pressing, it is covered with fermented cloth soaked in warm water to increase the temperature and humidity of the fermented leaves, promote enzyme activity and shorten the fermentation time, generally 5-6. After an hour, the veins are reddish brown and can be baked and dried. The purpose of the fermentation is to cause the polyphenols in the tea to oxidize under the action of the enzyme, so that the green tea slab is reddened.
  • Fermentation is a key process for the formation of red tea color, aroma and taste characteristics. Generally, the loquat leaves are placed in a fermentation box or a fermenting cart, and are fermented in a fermentation chamber. Fermentation is to master the appropriate temperature, humidity and oxygen amount required to satisfy the oxidative polymerization of tea polyphenol oxidase.

Baking[edit]

  • The moderately fermented tea leaves are evenly collected on the water sieve, and about 2 to 2.5 kg per sieve is placed, and then the water sieve is placed on the hanger, and the pure pinewood (wet is better) is burned, so the small black tea is mixed. It has a unique pure smoke scent. When it is just baked, the fire temperature is required to be higher, generally around 80 degrees. The high temperature is mainly to stop the enzyme action, prevent the enzyme activity and cause excessive fermentation, and the bottom of the leaf is dark and not carried out. Baking generally adopts a dry method. It should not be turned over so as not to affect the unevenness of the dryness, resulting in external dryness. Generally, it can be baked in 6 hours, depending on the size of the firepower. Generally, it is baked to the tentacle and has a tingling feeling. It is ground into powder, the dryness is reached, and then it is cool.

Rebaked[edit]

  • Tea is a substance that absorbs moisture and must be re-fired before it can be sold to retain its internal quality. The water content does not exceed 8%.

Shopping tips[edit]

Discrimination method[edit]

  • According to the quality of the quality, the black tea is divided into three types: high quality tea, defective tea and inferior tea. Anyone whose quality characteristics meet the requirements of food quality and hygiene standards can be regarded as high-quality tea; those with serious smoke, acid, odor, musty, sun and other odors, especially those contaminated by pesticides and fertilizers., called inferior tea. Less polluted or treated by certain technical means can be improved, that is, defective tea. In this way, black tea lovers should understand and master the identification method, and need comprehensive judgment by means of sensory systems such as hands, eyes, nose and mouth.
  • (1) Grab
  • First of all, I feel the light weight, tightness and thickness of the black tea. The quality of the high-quality black tea is relatively tight, and it is better for the heavy ones, and the coarse and light ones are bad. The main purpose of touching tea leaves by hand is to understand the dryness of black tea dry tea. Take a tea stick at your fingertips. Dry tea usually has a thorny feel and is easy to break. If it is a damp tea, there is no such feature. However, when touching the tea, do not grab it a lot, and avoid the sweat in your hands from infiltrating into the tea leaves, causing the tea to get wet.
  • (2) Eye view
  • Grab a handful of dry tea on a white paper or white porcelain plate. Rotate the double-handed disk in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction to observe whether the shape of the black tea dry tea is uniform, whether the color is consistent, and some need to see if it is gold. No. The ropes are tight and clean, no broken tea or broken tea, and the color is black and oily (some teas will show cash). The ropes are coarse and loose, the color is messy, broken tea, powdered tea, and even Containing tea seeds, tea fruit, old branches, old leaves, pests and leaves, weeds, branches, metal objects, insects and other inclusions, such tea is considered as defective tea or inferior tea. In addition, it can be distinguished by looking at the soup color and the leaf bottom after brewing. The color of the high-quality black tea is bright and clear, the leaves are completely unfolded and evenly distributed, and the texture is soft and tender; the soup color of the defective tea and the inferior tea is red, dark and turbid, and the inferior tea with the mildew smell is The characteristics of the bottom of the leaf are not displayed, and the color is dark.
  • (3) nose sniffing
  • That is to use the human sense of smell to distinguish whether black tea has smoke, sour, odor, musty, sun and other odors. The dry tea of high-quality black tea has sweet scent, and there will be a pleasant aroma of sweet alcohol after brewing. The defective tea and inferior tea are not obvious or contain odor. In fact, in the processing of black tea, if the processing conditions (such as temperature, humidity, etc.) and processing techniques (such as withering, fermentation, etc.) are not properly controlled, or because the finished products of the black tea are improperly stored, some odors that are not good for quality will be produced. However, some unpleasant odors are less, and it is not easy to be detected when smelling dry tea. At this time, it is necessary to distinguish by brewing, and it is found that the tea containing sour taste, taste and musty smell is not too strong. Try to improve the quality by baking.
  • (4) taste
  • When the shape, dryness, color and aroma of dry tea meet the purchase standard, you can take some tea into the mouth to chew and discern, and further understand the quality of the taste according to the taste. In addition, you can also judge by opening soup. The taste of high-quality black tea is mainly sweet alcohol, and the small black tea has the mellow and sweet taste. The black tea is mainly fresh, concentrated, alcoholic and cool. These characteristics are not obvious in the defective tea, and the taste of the inferior tea is rich and bitter, and even has an odor. [9]

Precautions[edit]

  • First, the selection of brands: consumers buy local tea in the market, most of the tastes that manufacturers have already blended, rather than purebred tea.
  • Second, the effective period. When buying black tea, you need to pay attention to the date of manufacture and the expiration date to avoid buying expired black tea.
  • Third, choose the packaging method. Most of the packaging we see is tea bags or iron cans. If you want to drink local tea or specialty tea, it is best to buy canned black tea.
  • Fourth, understand the production area: whether it is Ceylon black tea, Kenya black tea, are the collective name of the place of origin, the tea produced in different tea areas of each production area and the modulation methods are different, the taste is also different.

Preservation method[edit]

  • Tea should be kept away from moisture and high temperature, and should not be preserved together with detergents, spices, soaps, etc., in order to keep the tea pure. It is best to put it in a tea can and move it to a dark, dry place. It is best to drink the tea after opening. Otherwise, the taste and flavor will be lost. Different teas should not be mixed, so as not to appreciate the tea. Original flavor.
  • Specific storage method
  • 1. Storage method of iron cans: Use the tinplate double-covered colored tea supplied on the market as a container. Before storing, check that the can body and the can lid are closed and that there is no air leak. When storing, dry the tea leaves, and the cans should be installed tightly. This method is convenient to use but not suitable for long-term storage. [12]
  • 2, hot water bottle storage method: use a warm water bottle for good use. Put the dried tea leaves into the bottle and install the foot to reduce the air retention in the bottle. The bottle mouth is tightly covered with cork stopper, the plug edge is coated with white wax, and then wrapped with tape. Because the air inside the bottle is small and the temperature is stable, this method is better and easier to maintain.
  • 3, ceramic altar storage method: choose dry and no smell, a closed ceramic altar, wrap the tea with kraft paper, placed around the altar, embedded with a lime bag in the middle, put the tea bag on top, after filling the altar, covered with cotton wrap. Lime is replaced every 1-2 months. This method utilizes the hygroscopic property of quicklime to make the tea leaves free from moisture, and has a good effect, and can maintain the quality of the tea for a long time, especially some valuable tea leaves such as Longjingqi Gunfang, which is particularly suitable for this method.
  • 4. Packing method: first pack the tea with clean and odorless white paper, then wrap a piece of kraft paper, then put it into a non-porous plastic food bag, squeeze it gently, and squeeze out the air inside the bag. Immediately use a soft cord to tighten the bag to take a plastic food bag, and then put it on the outside of the first bag, also gently squeeze, squeeze the air inside the bag and tie the bag with a rope; finally put it into the dry Unscented and sealed inside the iron cylinder. [12]
  • 5, low-temperature storage method: the same method as the "food bag storage method", and then put the tea leaves tightly in the bag in the refrigerator. The internal temperature can be controlled below 5 degrees Celsius and can be stored for more than one year. This method is especially suitable for storing famous tea and jasmine tea, but it is necessary to prevent the tea from getting wet.
  • 6, charcoal sealed storage method: the use of charcoal can absorb moisture characteristics to store tea. First burn the charcoal, immediately cover it with a brazier or iron pan, and let it go out. After drying, wrap the charcoal with a clean cloth and place it in the middle of the tile tank. The charcoal in the tank should be replaced in time according to the situation of the Hu tide.

Discussions[edit]

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