Appointment

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Title Info
English name Appointment
Chinese name 委任统治
Background After the first world war
In accordance with International Union Covenant
Time 1918

Appointment[edit]

  • The appointment rule was a system established by the imperialist victors after the end of the First World War in November 1918 to re-divide and rule the colonies of the defeated countries through the League of Nations.

Introduction[edit]

  • The League of Nations Covenant stipulates that before the war (A) the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) belongs to the Near East, (B) the German-owned African colonies, (C) Germany to the West African and Pacific Islands, the League of Nations appointed Britain, France Governing with countries such as Japan. The ruling colony is called the ruling land, and the country appointed to rule is called the appointed country. The task of the accredited country is to give administrative “guidance and assistance” to the appointment of a ruling place in Category A; to appoint a ruling place in Class B, to assume local administrative responsibility as a separate territory in accordance with the stipulated conditions; The ruling land is governed by various guarantees as part of its territory. Formally, the appointed country is a “protection” relationship with the appointed ruling land. The appointed country is responsible to the international coalition and must submit an annual report to the Executive Yuan on the appointment of the ruling land. By the time the United Nations was established at the end of the Second World War, Class A appointed ruling areas, such as Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, had become independent countries; and Class B and Class C appointments were converted to trust under the United Nations Trusteeship System. territory. [1]

Background origin[edit]

  • According to the Covenant of the League of Nations, "the happiness and development of the people who appoint the ruling land is the sacred responsibility of the civilized world." The best way to achieve this goal is to "trust the custody of the people who appoint the ruling land to the developed countries." The resources, experience and geographical location of these entrusted countries are sufficient to undertake this obligation and are willing to accept commissions, which on behalf of the League of Nations are regulated or guarded by way of appointment.
  • Although the source of "appointment" can be traced back to the 1815 Vienna Conference "trusted" the Ionian Islands to the British "protection", the 1885 Berlin Conference Protocol "trusted" the Congolese Free State to the Belgian King "governance", but The appointment of the rule became "a new system in modern international politics", or it was created in response to the special circumstances that occurred after the First World War. Under the "new system, almost all the 'non-European' territories abandoned by the Germans and the Ottoman Empire were selected by the 'majority of the Allies and their United Nations' for the specific state, the right to rule, officially appointed by the League of Nations, and Subject to the supervision of the League of Nations. These territories are known as 'appointment of the ruling land'.

Significance[edit]

  • Since the appointment rule is only the "agent rule of the appointed country", then the system of appointment rule contains such attributes: first, "the international alliance is appointed for the interests of the people on a particular land"; second, "the appointed country is the international alliance." Member States"; the third is "the reign of the country as a temporary transition." However, the "appointment rule" has its flaws: it has not fixed the "sovereignty in the place of appointment" in the form of legislation; there is no standard, that is, objectively measuring the people who appoint the ruling "have no self-reliance", and in any case, even if "Self-care ability"; there is no express provision for the League of Nations to withdraw the right to appoint a dominant place. As a result, “appointment rule” is still a colonial approach that is not much different from other types of colonial rule, and is not a new move.
  • The appointment of the ruling system as a historical fact marks a new trend of the general policy of imperialist colonial rule after the Great War, that is, the international settlement of colonial rule; it marks the emergence of imperialist victors after the First World War to maintain colonial rule. A new form, namely, under the supervision of the League of Nations, looks like a fair resolution of power disputes in accordance with international law to avoid a form of greater international conflict. This form replaces the form of privately divided and directly annexed colonies in the past by several imperialist countries. In the end, this kind of system is nothing but a "departure from the wolf's nest and into the tiger's mouth". Therefore, Lenin sharply pointed out that the appointment of the ruling system entrusted imperialism to the "right of theft and robbery" against the colonies. [2]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Kee F. Malakhovsky. The Last Trusteeship. Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1980
  2. ^ Gao Wei, Zheng Jiaxin. The History of Colonialism · The General Volume . Beijing: Peking University Press, 2003